Bovine Tapeworm - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

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Bovine Tapeworm - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention
Bovine Tapeworm - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

Video: Bovine Tapeworm - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

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Video: What is a Tapeworm Infection? (Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention) 2023, February
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Bovine tapeworm is a tapeworm (tapeworm) of the Taenia family that causes the parasitic disease teniarinchiasis. The final owner of the bovine tapeworm is man, and the intermediate owner is cattle. The area of ​​distribution of this parasite is the hot tropical countries of Africa and South America. However, beef tapeworm is also found in Eastern Europe, Russia and Asia Minor. The source of infection is cattle (cows, bulls, calves). A person, as a rule, becomes infected by eating poorly cooked or raw meat of cattle. For the further development of the bovine tapeworm in the human body, it needs to go through the development cycle in the form of eggs, since the process of their maturation occurs in an intermediate host - exclusively in the body of cattle.

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Content

  1. Bull tapeworm - description
  2. Development cycle
  3. Infection routes
  4. Symptoms
  5. Bovine tapeworm treatment
  6. Treatment
  7. Prevention
  8. Folk remedies

Bull tapeworm - description

Adult worms have a flat ribbon-like body, so they belong to the class of tapeworms. This structure of the worm promotes better absorption of nutrients from the human intestine. These representatives of flatworms have completely lost their digestive system, they have no mouth, stomach and anus. On the head of the bovine tapeworm there are four suction cups, with which it is fixed on the mucous membrane of the human intestine.

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The body of the worm consists of proglottids (body segments of individual segments), which, together with the scolex (head part), make up the strobila (a chain of segments that form the body) of adult tapeworms. Tapeworms absorb nutrients through the flat membrane of the body. First of all, bovine tapeworm needs carbohydrates, in particular glucose, since it is the most important nutrient for its vital functions.

Each proglottid, the number of which is about two thousand, is a carrier of both female and male germ cells. This allows the eggs to develop within them. New proglottids develop on the neck, pushing the previous segments to the posterior end, where they separate, thus releasing a thousand eggs into the environment. Only one segment contains up to 150 fertilized eggs, which are ready for the next life stage of development. Bovine tapeworm retains its viability for up to 25 years.

Bovine tapeworm Taeniarhynchus saginatus is a member of the Taenia family of tapeworms that causes a number of parasitic diseases called teniidoses. It is this type of tapeworm that causes a disease called teniarinchiasis.

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The bovine tapeworm chooses the organism of cattle as an intermediate host. Only man is the ultimate master. This parasite is one of the longest helminths, its length reaches 12 m. It is believed that it has no equal among other representatives of the tapeworm genus, and among tape helminths, it is second only to a wide tapeworm.

This representative of flatworms can reach very large sizes. There are cases when the worm reached 22 meters in length.

Development cycle

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The development of the bovine tapeworm should be carried out in two organisms: intermediate (cattle) and final (human). The life cycle of a bovine tapeworm has the following stages of development:

  1. Proglottids filled with eggs are located in the intestines of the human (the final host) and are released during defecation along with feces into the environment. It should be recalled that each such segment contains a huge number of eggs up to 100 thousand, in which there are already full-fledged larvae that are able to develop further.
  2. Once in the environment, proglottids are able to move for some time on the ground and grass, spreading eggs everywhere, which are then eaten along with the grass by cattle (intermediate host).
  3. In the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, under the influence of enzymes and acids, the egg membrane of the tapeworm is destroyed and larvae (oncospheres) are released, which are able to be transported through the bloodstream throughout the body of cattle. Then the larvae are fixed in muscle tissues, and the oncospheres are filled with fluid, developing into the next stage - cysticercus (Finnu). Finn bovine tapeworm develops in the muscles of cattle and eating thermally poorly processed meat of an infected animal, a person becomes infected with bovine tapeworm larvae.
  4. The next cycle of development is the entry of infected and poorly processed meat of cattle into the human body. Under the influence of human digestive juices, the cysticercus membranes are destroyed, allowing the larval forms of the tapeworm to attach to the intestinal walls of the final host.
  5. Then the development of adults occurs. Forming more and more new proglottids, the bovine tapeworm very quickly increases in size, reaching a length of 5 meters. After puberty, the worm is detached from mature proglottids containing eggs, and the life cycle of the parasite repeats again.

Infection routes

The main route of infection with bovine tapeworm is the consumption of raw or undercooked beef meat. Gourmets who prefer a beef steak with blood fall into the risk group for infection with bovine tapeworm. The incubation period lasts 2-3 months, this is how much time passes from the moment of infection to the formation of a sexually mature individual in the human intestine. Most often, at a certain point in time, there is one adult individual in the body of the final host (human) (sometimes two or more worms are present).

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Bovine tapeworm infections are more common in adults than in children, which is logical due to food addictions. People whose professional activity is associated with work in slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, in catering establishments suffer from teniarinhoses more often than others.

Infection with bovine tapeworm occurs only when the parasite, its eggs and larvae pass the full life cycle. For this reason, a person infected with teniarinchiasis is not contagious and does not pose a threat to the people around him. But the presence of this parasite in the body has a negative effect on many organs and systems.

For example, its fixation with suction cups to the intestinal epithelium can provoke a number of inflammatory processes and disruption of the digestive process. A person is weakened by the lack of nutrients that are absorbed by the parasite, and is poisoned by toxins that the latter releases into the body. As a result, humans experience allergic reactions caused by the toxic waste products of the worm.

Symptoms

Most people infected with bovine tapeworm do not experience any sensation, except when the parasite becomes enormous. In such cases, a person experiences nausea to vomiting and, oddly enough, a feeling of satiety. Bovine tapeworm in humans is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • lack of appetite;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • weight loss;
  • headache;
  • general fatigue and weakness;
  • itching in the anus.

A large worm can cause acute intestinal obstruction, and the presence of several individuals can close the worm-like lumen, provoking acute appendicitis.

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It happens that patients learn about the presence of a parasite in the body by finding a large segment of the worm in the feces after defecation. The worms are able to crawl down the thighs when the person is active, producing a tickling sensation.

A blood test, in which there is an increased level of eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), can indicate the presence of bovine tapeworm in the body.

A significant difference between bovine and pork tapeworm is the fact that when eggs are swallowed in people with Taeniarhynchus saginatus, the cysticercus stage (Finn) does not occur. For this reason, infection with bovine tapeworm is less dangerous than infection with pork. Since in pork tapeworm, cysticercus can enter the central nervous system and other organs, forming small subcutaneous cysts.

Bovine tapeworm treatment

It is not difficult to detect the presence of adults of the parasite in the body, but it is almost impossible to diagnose the presence of bovine tapeworm eggs.

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First of all, hardware diagnostics of the gastrointestinal tract is carried out. Also, laboratory tests of blood and feces are needed, which are highly accurate. Stool analysis may show the presence of individual tapeworm segments and laid eggs. A perianal scraping will help identify the eggs of the parasite. Scraping is also done with a special cotton swab from the anus.

In some cases, fluoroscopy is prescribed. Diagnostics using a contrast agent will help detect bovine tapeworm in the human body. A one centimeter white stripe appears on the image.

A general blood test will show an increase in the number of eosinophils, a decrease in the level of leukocytes and a low level of hemoglobin, which speaks volumes about the development of anemia.

A decrease in gastric acidity will confirm infection with helminths.

Treatment

Treatment of diseases caused by bovine tapeworm is carried out in several directions:

  1. Diet food system. The human menu should be balanced, containing foods that do not cause slagging of the intestines and the body. You should avoid foods such as legumes, cabbage, beets, sweet fruits, chocolate, milk, carbonated drinks. It is recommended to eat fermented milk products, lean fish, buckwheat and bread. Meals should be fractional, small amounts, several times a day.
  2. Therapeutic drug treatment. For each patient, the doctor selects an individual treatment regimen and individual intake of pharmacological drugs. The main anthelmintic drug is Fenasal. Treatment with this drug takes place according to a certain scheme. Another antihelminthic drug, which is prescribed once, is Biltricid. It is taken strictly according to the doctor's prescription.

Under the influence of the above medicines, the parasite dies and is independently excreted from the body along with the feces.

Prevention

As you know, any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, prevention is needed to prevent the disease.

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  1. One of the ways to prevent bovine tapeworm is to eliminate raw, semi-raw and poorly processed beef from the diet. High-quality heat treatment is capable of completely destroying the oncosphere of the parasite. Therefore, the temperature inside the product should reach 80 degrees and be there for an hour.
  2. Also, before buying, you should carefully examine the meat, since the Finn bovine tapeworm is easy to spot. They are small white bubbles.
  3. You can kill the parasite by deep freezing the meat for about five days.
  4. Personal hygiene must be observed: change underwear and bedding every day.
  5. If a person has been infected and received appropriate treatment, then within three months, the removal of the segments along with the feces is monitored. Only after that there is a guarantee of a complete cure.
  6. If you experience specific symptoms, you should definitely consult a doctor.

Folk remedies

Treatment with folk remedies is effective when combined with pharmacological drugs. Since treatment is only medication, it can cause side effects, in the form of intoxication and allergic reactions. But even the use of traditional medicine recipes must be carried out with permission and under the supervision of a specialist. Therefore, you should not self-medicate, not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance. Treatment of parasitic infections has a lot of side effects and complications, even when using folk remedies.

In addition, treatment only with folk remedies takes a long time and during this time the activity of helminths can cause a lot of harm to the body, which will manifest itself as serious complications.

So, there are several effective recipes for traditional medicine.

Healing herbs

Recipe number 1. To prepare the infusion, take two tablespoons of immortelle herb and valerian root and pour half a liter of boiling water. Everything can be placed in a thermos, and in the morning drink half a glass of the finished tincture. Take half a glass of tincture on an empty stomach 3-4 times a day. The tincture can be prepared from each herb separately, or herbs can be combined.

Recipe number 2. Take 20 grams of tansy flowers, peppermint, buckthorn bark, add 20 grams of pumpkin seeds to them. All are mixed and poured over with one glass of water, heated for half an hour in a water bath. The resulting mixture is cooled and filtered. Consumed in the mornings and evenings for three days in a row.

Garlic, herring and milk

Take salted herring, peel it, grind it in a blender. Add 3 cloves of garlic, raw yolk and 2 tablespoons of millet to it. Mix everything until smooth and add a glass of boiled milk. The resulting mixture must be eaten at one time. Before you eat the mixture, you need to do a cleansing enema.

Salty fish

Salted fish is eaten in large quantities, but after that they do not drink water for several hours, just as much as a person can withstand. Then they drink a laxative. The essence of this treatment is that the tapeworm must leave the body on its own.

Pumpkin seeds

Dry (not roasted) pumpkin seeds must be husked without removing the gray-green film. Then, within one day, eat all the seeds, but apart from them, you can not eat or drink anything. After all the seeds are eaten, you need to wait two hours and drink a laxative. The next morning, there will be a urge to defecate.

Walnut peels

To prepare a tincture from the peel of walnuts, take 10 - 15 shells of nuts and pour half a liter of alcohol and infuse for 30 days in a dark place. Take ten drops of tincture per 100g of water.

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