Worms During Pregnancy - What Is The Danger?

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Worms During Pregnancy - What Is The Danger?
Worms During Pregnancy - What Is The Danger?

Video: Worms During Pregnancy - What Is The Danger?

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Video: DEWORMING DURING PREGNANCY | CAUSES |PREVENTION BY WHO | TREATMENT OF INTESTINAL WORM IN PREGNANCY| 2023, February
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During pregnancy, every woman wants to be healthy. Therefore, during this period of time, a woman listens carefully to the changes that occur in her body, fearing all kinds of diseases and complications. She needs to protect herself as much as possible from harmful bacteria, infections and parasites. However, it is impossible to foresee everything in life and during pregnancy, unfortunately, all sorts of unforeseen situations happen. One of these unpleasant situations is infection of a pregnant woman with helminthic invasions. Worms in pregnant women can cause quite serious symptoms leading to complications. Of course, no one will say that worms during pregnancy are fatal, but they can bring a lot of harm.

Content

  1. Sources of infection with worms
  2. The mechanism of penetration of worms
  3. Symptoms that signal parasitic invasion
  4. Pinworms during pregnancy
  5. Ascaris during pregnancy
  6. Opisthorchiasis and pregnancy
  7. How do worms during pregnancy affect the mother and fetus
  8. How is helminthiasis diagnosed during pregnancy?
  9. Worms during pregnancy - to treat or not to treat?
  10. Treatment of helminthiasis in pregnant women
  11. Prevention of helminthic invasions in pregnant women

Sources of infection with worms

First of all, pregnant women should know how to get infected with worms. After all, having such information, you can prevent infection and protect yourself and the child.

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There are several ways of infection with worms:

  1. Unwashed or poorly washed vegetables, herbs, berries and fruits. Vegetables should not only be washed, but thoroughly rubbed with your fingers and doused with boiling water, since animal feces are often used as fertilizers. As a result, the eggs of the parasites stick to vegetables and fruits and it is absolutely impossible to wash them off with water.
  2. Meat and fish. Meat and fish products must be subjected to high-quality heat treatment. During pregnancy, give up salted, smoked and dried fish and meat.
  3. Inhaled air. Together with the dust, helminth eggs can be inhaled even at home, since they penetrate the house through open windows and settle on objects. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out wet cleaning every day.
  4. Banknotes. This is the main source of infection, since money circulates from hand to hand, thereby transmitting various infections, including parasitic ones.
  5. Contact with another person can become a source of infection. When touching, shaking hands, you can get any helminthiasis.
  6. Public spaces and playgrounds. Unfortunately, our country lacks an elementary culture of sanitation and hygiene. This is manifested in the fact that on the street there are many stray dogs infected with one or another parasitic infection. Special services do not track them and do not control this process at all. Pet owners also do not monitor their pets, after the act of defecation on the street, they do not remove their animal's feces, but simply leave it outside. In children's sandboxes, many stray animals relieve themselves, and their feces contain a large number of helminth eggs. Then children play in such sandboxes, and adults, stepping on animal feces, bring them into the house.
  7. Freshwater reservoirs. Swimming in various bodies of water should be avoided, since they contain helminth larvae and eggs, which can enter the body through mucous membranes or skin. It is also contraindicated to drink from such sources and not to cook food in such water (in nature).
  8. Pets. Helminths are found not only in the feces of domestic animals, but also on their fur. Simply by stroking the animal, and without washing your hands afterwards, you can immediately catch helminthiasis.
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The mechanism of penetration of worms

Eggs and larvae of helminths can enter the body in different ways:

  • through the alimentary route through infected meat and fish, vegetables, greens and fruits;
  • household contact through dirty hands, in contact with an infected person, through common items: common towels, dishes, bedding;
  • transmissively through blood-sucking insects;
  • active or percunant way, the larvae of helminths can penetrate the mucous membranes and skin, for example, while swimming in questionable bodies of water.

Symptoms that signal parasitic invasion

Parasitic invasions do not have clear symptoms that would reliably indicate the presence of parasites in the body. As a rule, there are too many symptoms of helminthiasis, they are vague and erased, and sometimes they are completely absent. Therefore, it cannot be said with certainty that a woman who has attacks of nausea or vomiting suffers from a parasitic infection. After all, these, as a rule, can be signs of intoxication during pregnancy. Also, many symptoms are similar to the manifestations of other diseases, because almost every second person has diseases of the digestive tract. However, you can think about the presence of helminths for the following symptoms:

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  • intolerable itching around the anus at night or immediately after waking up;
  • upset stools: diarrhea or constipation or alternation;
  • indigestion;
  • flatulence, seething and gases;
  • lack of appetite;
  • bruxism and dry saliva around the mouth in the morning;
  • the presence of bad breath;
  • peeling of the skin in the eyelids, on the toes and hands;
  • allergic reactions to different parts of the body;
  • skin rashes that cause itching;
  • addiction to sweets;
  • sucking feeling of hunger to nausea;
  • weakness, lethargy and drowsiness;
  • weight loss or gain;
  • hair loss;
  • poor skin condition;
  • dry and brittle nails;
  • regular joint pain;
  • chronic cough;
  • anemia;
  • feverish condition with muscle pain.
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However, it is not correct to diagnose helminthiasis only by the above symptoms. No doctor would do such unprofessional things. In order to accurately verify the presence of a parasitic infection in a pregnant woman, it is necessary to conduct a number of laboratory tests.

Pinworms during pregnancy

Pinworms during pregnancy cannot harm either the mother or the baby. They cannot cross the placental barrier and do not pose a threat to the fetus. However, a pregnant woman may suffer from intoxication, which develops as a result of the release of parasite waste products.

The danger of pinworms is as follows:

  • pinworms during pregnancy are able to move into the vagina and cause inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
  • unbearable itching can cause a violation of the integrity of the skin, which can lead to the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the body;
  • the lack of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements occurs due to the fault of helminths, which absorb everything that the body of a pregnant woman should get;
  • discomfort during a night's sleep can lead to chronic fatigue, irritability, anxiety, loss of strength, which negatively affects the general condition of the fetus;
  • upon learning about the presence of a parasitic infection, a pregnant woman experiences permanent anxiety and excitement for the health of the unborn child, which leads to nervousness and psycho-emotional stress;
  • chronic enterobiasis can become a source of infection for a child during breastfeeding and caring for him.

Ascaris during pregnancy

Ascariasis during pregnancy can provoke a miscarriage in early pregnancy, as well as lead to early labor. Roundworms pose a serious threat to the fetus, in addition, in a pregnant woman with ascariasis, a violation of carbohydrate metabolism is observed.

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Ascaris larvae are able to migrate through the blood vessels from organ to organ, disrupting their work and causing inflammatory processes in them. Thus, helminths are able to pass the placental barrier and enter the child's body. If roundworms settle in the lungs of a child even before his birth, then after birth he will suffer from chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, frequent colds and allergies.

If the helminths settle in the liver, then the baby will have jaundice for a long time after birth. Also, metabolic products secreted by helminths contribute to the appearance of intoxication in a child, which will lead to a violation of his physical and mental development. Therefore, the question does not arise before specialists: whether to treat ascariasis or not. They are unanimous in the opinion that ascariasis must be treated. However, treatment should be done after 12 weeks of pregnancy. In the first months of fetal development, the laying of its main organs occurs, and the protective placenta has not yet been formed during this period. Therefore, any antihelminthic drugs will have a negative effect on the development of the child.

Opisthorchiasis and pregnancy

Opisthorchiasis is a very dangerous disease characterized by severe damage to the liver and bile ducts. When infected with this parasitic infection, it is important to timely start treatment of a pregnant woman, since the development of a chronic form of opisthorchiasis is dangerous because it can provoke a miscarriage, early birth or fetal death. In addition, opisthorchis can lead to the development of liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis or peritonitis.

Also, opisthorchiasis can cause the expectant mother, the following dangerous symptoms:

  • impaired renal function;
  • inflammation of the pancreas;
  • low oxygen content;
  • respiratory system disorder.

If atypical symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor to prevent the development of complications. Also, the chronic stage of the disease is capable of provoking the development of cancer of the liver and gallbladder.

Treatment of the chronic form of opisthorchiasis, as a rule, is carried out in a hospital under the constant supervision of a doctor.

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Experts have proven that intrauterine infection of the fetus does not occur either at the beginning of pregnancy or at its later stages. Opisthorchis larvae do not infect the baby's body, since it is reliably protected by maternal antigens, which come to him along with other useful substances. After childbirth, these antigens further strengthen the baby's immunity, entering the baby's body with milk. However, some experts are inclined to believe that the presence of a helminth in the mother's body interferes with the full development of the fetus. Constantly pulling pains in the lower abdomen can provoke premature birth and the life of the child may be at risk.

How do worms during pregnancy affect the mother and fetus

It is well known that worms pose a certain danger to the body of any person or child. They are also dangerous for pregnant women. The main threats and complications lie in the following factors:

  • metabolic products secreted by worms contribute to allergization of the whole organism;
  • the development of severe toxicosis also due to metabolic products secreted by parasites; the most unpleasant factor during infection with helminthiases of pregnant women is increased toxicosis.
  • the appearance of puffiness;
  • the development of a severe form of anemia due to lack of nutrients;
  • deficiency of vitamins and microelements occurs due to a decrease in nutrients entering the body, this fact can lead to a decrease in the mental and physical development of the child;
  • oxygen starvation of the fetus and, as a result, miscarriage;
  • the most dangerous parasites for the fetus are roundworms, since they are able to penetrate the placenta and colonize the internal organs of the child:
  • pinworms are dangerous in that they are able to penetrate the genital tract of the expectant mother, causing irritation of the mucous membrane and inflammatory processes due to the addition of a bacterial infection;
  • special discomfort is caused by intolerable itching, which causes anxiety, insomnia and nervousness in the mother.
  • the most dangerous type of parasite for pregnancy is toxoplasmosis, it affects the intrauterine development of the child and can cause serious complications, with toxoplasmosis, the death of the fetus in the womb can occur, as well as the death of the child after birth. If the infected child survives, then in the future he will be greatly delayed in development, there will be signs of cerebral palsy, epilepsy or schizophrenia.
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How is helminthiasis diagnosed during pregnancy?

If there is a suspicion of helminthic invasion, a pregnant woman undergoes a comprehensive examination, which will not only reveal helminths in the body, but also determine their type and number. To do this, use the following methods:

  1. Analysis of feces for helminth eggs. This test will have to be repeated several times, since the eggs of the worms cannot always be detected immediately. Therefore, a negative analysis is not reliable.
  2. Scraping from the perianal folds. Usually enterobiasis is diagnosed by this method, since female pinworms go outside to lay eggs.
  3. General and biochemical blood test. These tests can determine the presence of parasites in the body by the level of hemoglobin and bilirubin.
  4. Serological blood test. In this case, blood serum is examined to determine antibodies to various parasites.
  5. Immunoassay test (ELISA). With this test, you can determine the antibodies and antigens in the mother's blood. That is, it shows quite reliably the type and number of helminths in the body.
  6. Blood hemoscanning. A drop of blood is examined under a microscope. This study is able to determine the presence of protozoa in the body.
  7. PCR diagnostics. This research is based on the principles of molecular biology. For this purpose, fragments of DNA and RNA molecules of parasites are determined in the material under study.
  8. When infected with tapeworms (cestodes) and ascaris, it is necessary to analyze the amniotic fluid.
  9. Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) is necessary to determine the degree of infection of the baby in the womb.
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Most often, parasites in pregnant women are detected by chance during tests. If parasites are found, it is necessary to urgently contact a specialist. You should not delay the trip to the doctor or try to remove the worms yourself with dubious folk recipes. This can lead to very sad consequences.

Worms during pregnancy - to treat or not to treat?

During pregnancy, diseases are treated only when they directly threaten the health and life of the expectant mother. With helminthic invasion in a pregnant woman, it is impossible to remove the worms with any antihelminthic agents and even recipes for traditional medicine.

How to be? To treat or not to treat helminthiasis in pregnant women?

To date, experts have not come to a consensus. Some doctors are inclined to believe that it is imperative to treat helminthiasis, since parasites absorb vitamins, trace elements and nutrients intended for the child. And if roundworms have settled in the mother's body, then there is a danger of fetal damage and problems with the development of the baby (damage to the lungs and brain). In this case, childbirth will be difficult, since the baby's head will increase in size. If the child's lungs are affected, then after birth he will often suffer from bronchitis, pneumonia, viral diseases.

Other experts believe that you can endure the discomfort caused by worms, since taking toxic anthelmintic drugs with multiple contraindications is a very high risk. In addition, highly toxic drugs place an enormous strain on the liver and kidneys, and can do more harm than good. Adepts of this point of view argue that worms during pregnancy do not pose any danger either to the expectant mother or to the baby himself.

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If the attending physician is inclined to the uselessness of antihelminthic treatment, then the expectant mother should remember that in no case should she self-medicate. If, nevertheless, doubts remain, then it is necessary to consult a parasitologist, but do not take any measures on your own.

Treatment of helminthiasis in pregnant women

If the doctor nevertheless came to the conclusion that it is necessary to treat the parasitosis, then the treatment is carried out in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The most dangerous infection with worms in the first months of pregnancy, since during this period the child's organs are just beginning to form and the risk of developing various pathologies is very high. For this reason, all medications are strictly prohibited in early pregnancy. In the second half of pregnancy, drugs for treatment are selected in such a way as to cause minimal harm to the fetus. In late pregnancy, treatment is successful, and it is not difficult to remove parasites from a woman's body.

Take the following pills for worms during pregnancy:

  • Nemozole;
  • Dekaris;
  • Peperazine;
  • Wormin;
  • Mebex;
  • Pircon;
  • Medamin.

All of the above drugs are used in case of infection with nematodes (roundworms).

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The following drugs are used to treat cestodes (tapeworms):

  • Niclosamide;
  • Albendazole;
  • Mepacrine

Against flukes (flatworms) are used:

  • Perchlorethylene;
  • Bationol;
  • Azinox.

With the existing ascaris invasion in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, it is possible to use potent anthelmintic drugs. For this purpose, they take the drug Pirantel and Piperazine, since the consequences of ascaris can be much worse than from taking medications. If another type of helminth is found, then it is better not to carry out the treatment, but to wait for the birth.

Prevention of helminthic invasions in pregnant women

The essence of preventive actions is, first of all, in observing the rules of personal hygiene:

  1. Frequent hand washing after contact with an animal, after walking in the fresh air, after using the toilet and before eating.
  2. Thorough washing of vegetables and herbs, berries and fruits. Vegetables should be washed very efficiently, do not forget to pour boiling water over them.
  3. To subject meat and fish to high-quality heat treatment. Refuse during pregnancy from salted, smoked, raw and dried fish, as well as dried meat. Even dishes containing meat and fish should be washed with boiling water.
  4. Protect all meat products from contact with rodents and insects.
  5. Wear underwear that is close to the body.
  6. Wash underwear and bedding as often as possible.
  7. Iron clean things with a hot iron.
  8. Get rid of bad habits, do not bite your nails and bite off the skin around them.

Take a shower with soap every evening.

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