Treatment Of Ascariasis In Adults: Symptoms, Diagnosis

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Treatment Of Ascariasis In Adults: Symptoms, Diagnosis
Treatment Of Ascariasis In Adults: Symptoms, Diagnosis

Video: Treatment Of Ascariasis In Adults: Symptoms, Diagnosis

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Ascariasis: Signs & symptoms, mode of transmission, diagnosis and treatment, prevention & control 2023, February
Anonim

The existence of any kind of parasite in the human body causes irreparable harm to it. Even if at first glance they do not interfere with human life, then over time they become a source of development of inflammatory processes and serious diseases. Parasitic infections are caused by intestinal worms, which are very persistent in the environment and are found everywhere. One of the most dangerous diseases is ascariasis. We will talk about how ascariasis is treated in adults in the article below.

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Content

  1. Ascariasis - a description of the disease
  2. Infection routes
  3. Symptoms of ascariasis
  4. Treatment of ascariasis
  5. Treatment
  6. Medicines
  7. Folk remedies
  8. Prevention

Ascariasis - a description of the disease

Ascariasis is an infectious disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides roundworms, which belong to the Ascaridate class. Thus, the disease is called the parasite that provokes it. In a live state, roundworms have a spindle-shaped red color, after death they are white.

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Ascaris females are almost twice as large as males, they reach a length of up to 40 cm. The ascaris oral opening is surrounded by three lips, and the digestive system includes: the oral opening, the cylindrical esophagus, the intestinal tube, which ends with the anus.

The fertility of Ascaris is truly amazing. At the same time, the female's uterus contains up to 27 million eggs at different stages of development. Within one day, the female lays up to 250 thousand eggs, and this figure increases to 64 million eggs per year. As a rule, both fertilized and unfertilized eggs are thrown into the environment.

Ascaris parasitizes in the intestines of humans and some animals. Moreover, the species Ascaris lumbricoides (human ascaris) is "prescribed" only in the human body, where it lives from 1 to 2 years. Other types of ascaris parasitize only in the organisms of certain animals. This fact is explained by the fact that roundworms are very selective in the choice of their owner.

The development of roundworm takes place with the participation of one owner and envy of the climacteric conditions of the area, which affects the ability of eggs to ripen in the external environment.

Roundworms are localized in the small intestine. They do not have any suction devices to fix themselves on the intestinal mucosa. In order to stay in the small intestine, they must permanently make movements opposite to the movement of the food coma. Thus, roundworms are retained in the small intestine, in which other parasites can hardly stay, even in the presence of a suction apparatus, due to the active peristalsis of the small intestine.

Reproduction occurs only when sexually mature females and males exist in the small intestine. Same-sex individuals are not capable of mating, and in this case they parasitize in the human body for the rest of their lives. However, this rarely happens, since there are always representatives of both sexes in the body.

Ascariasis is more common among residents of countries with hot climates, low sanitary and hygienic standards and a low level of development of medicine, where there is an acute shortage of quality food and clean drinking water. The disease is more often observed in preschool children who are not yet accustomed to observing sanitary and hygienic norms and are easily infected in preschool groups.

An adult can contract ascariasis by eating unwashed or poorly washed vegetables and fruits.

Infection routes

Infection with this parasitic infection occurs when roundworm eggs are swallowed. This occurs when eating vegetables, herbs, fruits and berries that are contaminated with the soil in which the ascaris eggs were found.

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In the process of further development, roundworms go through two stages:

  • migratory;
  • intestinal.

After swallowing eggs, they enter the human intestine, where their shell is destroyed and as a result, the larvae are released. This is the first stage of development of the parasite - migration. The larvae penetrate the intestinal mucosa, then through it into the blood capillaries, then enter the liver with the bloodstream, from where they enter the right half of the heart and through the pulmonary artery into the lungs. From the lungs they penetrate into the pharynx and, when swallowing saliva, enter the stomach, and only then into the small intestine - their place of permanent habitation. In the small intestine, the larvae mature into adults capable of laying eggs. This is the second stage in the development of ascaris.

The first stage of the development of ascaris is considered especially dangerous - the migratory one, during which the organism is allergic to the products of the vital activity of parasites. The wastes that are produced during the metabolism of the larvae are strong sensitizing substances. They cause general and local allergic reactions, granulomatous hepatitis, infiltrates in the lungs, and an increase in eosinophils in the blood. Also, in the process of migration, the larvae damage the mucous membranes, which provokes the development of bleeding and extensive hemorrhages.

The intestinal stage of the development of ascaris does not cause severe allergic reactions, although toxic poisoning has already taken place. However, a rather complex development cycle of ascaris forces them to penetrate into the circulatory and respiratory system, but they do not remain there for long compared to the intestinal stage of the disease.

Adult roundworms cause mechanical damage to the walls of the small intestine, reflex dysfunction of the stomach and intestines, perforation of its walls and obstruction. Also, roundworms are able to have an immunosuppressive effect on the human defense system.

The fertilized female lays eggs in the intestines, from where they, together with feces, are excreted from the body. Ascaris eggs must achieve invasive development in the soil. For the development of eggs in the soil, favorable conditions are necessary: ​​a certain air humidity and a suitable temperature, as well as access to oxygen. The duration of survival of ascaris eggs in the soil is 7–12 years until they enter a suitable organism.

Symptoms of ascariasis

Ascariasis in an adult is asymptomatic for a long time. Since such signs of ascariasis, such as heartburn, belching, mild pain in the stomach, patients attribute to nutritional errors and a violation of the usual diet. In such cases, differentiated diagnostics with other diseases of the digestive tract are mandatory.

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Symptoms of ascariasis are significantly manifested at various stages of the disease, and the intensity of the manifestation of symptoms depends on concomitant chronic diseases.

Since roundworms constantly inhabit, feed and multiply in the small intestine, it suffers most from their invasion.

Organs that are affected by ascariasis:

  • all parts of the intestine;
  • pancreas;
  • esophagus and stomach (short-term);
  • bile ducts (short-term);
  • lungs;
  • a heart;
  • liver.

Ascaris does not develop in other organs. If suddenly the larvae have penetrated into atypical places for their development, then they form infiltrates of the type of abscesses. Such formations do not dissolve on their own, but they do not increase in size either. Also, they do not pose any danger to health, since in them the larvae do not turn into an adult.

Ascariasis is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • an increase in temperature indicators;
  • allergic rashes;
  • persistent cough;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium;
  • enlarged liver;
  • insomnia;
  • respiratory symptoms;
  • an increase in eosinophils in the blood.

After the maturation of ascaris in the small intestine, the following symptoms develop:

  • abdominal discomfort;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • loss of weight and appetite;
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • nausea and bad taste in the mouth.
  • itching in the anus;
  • lowering blood pressure.

There are known cases of ascaris suffocation, when the worms crawled into the respiratory tract, throat and sinuses. In addition, the presence of ascaris was observed in the lungs, in the ventricle of the heart and in the human brain.

Treatment of ascariasis

Diagnosis of ascariasis is complicated by the fact that each stage of development of ascaris has its own characteristic manifestations. To identify the disease, the specialist will need 2-3 weeks, during which the diagnosis will be accurately confirmed. During this time, as a rule, traces of the vital activity of parasites can be found in the blood.

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For this purpose, the following clinical studies are carried out:

  • general blood analysis;
  • blood chemistry;
  • a blood test for antibodies;
  • sputum analysis;
  • analysis of feces for ascaris eggs;
  • fluorography;
  • Analysis of urine;
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

General and biochemical blood tests show certain changes in the body. For example, leukocytosis is observed when larvae migrate to the lungs. The growth of eosinophils, which primarily react to parasites, is associated with general allergization and intoxication of the body with their metabolic products.

Serological analysis is performed to detect antibodies in the patient's serum. The formation of antibodies has very little effect on the suppression of the vital activity of parasites, since they have effective means of defense.

Sputum analysis is effective in the pulmonary stage of ascariasis. Microscopic examination reveals ascaris larvae in the sputum. In severe cases, bronchoscopy is performed as the only way to diagnose ascariasis.

Stool analysis is the most common test for the detection of ascaris eggs. They are well observed in feces under a microscope. However, the absence of eggs in the stool is not absolute proof of the absence of a parasitic infection. Since there can be larvae in the body, but they are not sexually mature individuals and do not lay eggs. They will be able to produce them only a few months after entering their place of permanent residence - the small intestine. In this case, the analysis of feces will have to be repeated several more times.

A biochemical study of urine reveals volatile fatty acids, which confirms the presence of a parasitic infection. These acids are secreted by larvae and adults during carbohydrate metabolism. This research method allows detecting the presence of ascaris at the earliest stage of the disease, before the larvae mature into an adult. However, the method can give false positive results, since the release of volatile fatty acids can occur in other pathologies.

Chest fluorography allows you to detect characteristic changes in the lung tissue, in the presence of larvae in the lungs. The pulmonary stage lasts ten days, then the roundworms migrate further. On the X-ray, a volatile infiltrate is clearly visible, which changes its location after a while.

Ultrasound examination cannot detect the localization of parasites in the body, but is able to identify diseases of the digestive system that are similar in symptoms. With the help of ultrasound and symptoms from a certain organ, it is possible to assume the localization of ascaris and the stage of development of the disease.

Treatment

Treatment of ascariasis requires long-term patience, since these parasites are very resilient. As a rule, anthelmintic therapy includes complex treatment according to a specific scheme.

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Treatment regimen for ascariasis in adults:

  1. The complete neutralization of ascaris is carried out with the help of pharmacological anthelmintic agents, which destroy parasites and remove them from the body.
  2. Treatment of the manifestations of ascariasis is carried out after the death of parasites, symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough, and general intoxication of the body are eliminated.
  3. Prevention of reinvasion (re-self-infection) includes neutralizing foci of infection that contribute to re-infection with ascariasis.
  4. A quality balanced diet is necessary to restore the patient's health. Since with massive invasions a person loses weight and is exhausted, it is necessary to improve nutrition for his full recovery.
  5. Carrying out a course of vitamin therapy is also necessary for their replenishment in the patient's body.
  6. Treatment of the side effects and complications of ascariasis allows the use of additional methods (for example, the use of surgery).
  7. The use of supportive therapy to improve gastrointestinal function. For this purpose, the patient is prescribed enzymes and probiotics.
  8. Treatment of chronic diseases that have worsened due to helminthic invasion.

Medicines

Treatment of this parasitic infection is carried out immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. In case of infection of one family member, preventive treatment of the whole family is carried out. You can get rid of ascariasis with the help of pharmacological drugs and traditional medicine. The following medications are most effective:

  • Albendazole;
  • Mebendazole;
  • Medamin;
  • Dekaris;
  • Pirantel.

Of the above drugs, the most famous is Pirantel, which completely neutralizes adults and has a detrimental effect on the eggs and larvae of ascaris. Contraindications to the use of the drug are liver diseases. To eliminate the dead individuals from the intestines, cleansing enemas and laxatives are prescribed. The course of treatment is repeated in 2–3 weeks until complete release from the parasite.

Folk remedies

Many people, having learned about the presence of a parasitic invasion, ask themselves the question: how to treat ascariasis? Of course, self-medication is not worth it. First of all, it is worth visiting a doctor and undergoing differential diagnostics. Do not forget that the defeat of roundworms refers to serious painful abnormalities that cause dangerous complications, so the help of a specialist is extremely important. After clarifying the diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe antihelmintic therapy, which includes a set of measures to destroy parasites. One of the directions in this scheme is the recipes of traditional medicine.

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Currently, there are very effective pharmacological drugs that reliably destroy parasites. But they are contraindicated in liver diseases, since they are very toxic. Therefore, they are not suitable for everyone. Therefore, it is better not to completely exclude drug therapy, but it is reasonable to combine it with traditional medicine recipes. Naturally, even treatment with folk remedies should be carried out according to the recommendations and under the supervision of a doctor.

The following recipes of traditional medicine have proven great efficiency in the fight against parasites:

Garlic milk

Pour one glass of milk into a small bowl, place the head of garlic there and cook until cooked. The resulting broth must be filtered and cooled. Then, at night, make an enema based on milk and garlic broth. Enemas are applied every day at night for a week.

This recipe can be slightly modified: crush a small head of garlic, take it raw and drink 200 ml of milk, after which you must drink a laxative.

Medicinal herbs

Take one tablespoon of oak bark, tansy, wormwood and buckthorn. Mix the herbs, then take one teaspoon of the mixture and pour 500 ml of boiling water. Leave the mixture in a sealed container overnight. In the morning on an empty stomach, drink one glass of tincture. The course of treatment lasts 2-3 weeks.

Pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds are very effective in fighting parasites, which is why there are many anthelmintic recipes based on them.

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Recipe number 1. Take 300 gr. peeled pumpkin seeds, when cleaning them, it is not necessary to remove the transparent film, since it is it that contains the substance cucurbitin, which is a strong poison for parasites.

Eat pumpkin seeds on an empty stomach in the morning.

Recipe number 2. You need to take 500 gr. peeled pumpkin seeds and grind them in a coffee grinder. Then add 50 ml of boiled water and stir until a thick slurry is formed. You can improve the taste of the mixture by adding honey or jam. Take one teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach. The prepared mixture must be eaten all over in one hour.

Recipe number 3. To prepare an infusion of wormwood, take one third of dry grass and two thirds of vodka. The ingredients are placed in a dark place, and leave for one week. Drink half a glass of tincture twice a day half an hour before meals. The course of treatment is three days.

Onion

Take one medium-sized onion, chop it and place it in a container. Fill the container halfway with vodka or alcohol. The tincture is infused for ten days in a dark place. Take two tablespoons of tincture twice a day for three days.

Pomegranate bark

You need to take 10 grams. dried pomegranate bark and pour a glass of boiling water over it. Then the pomegranate bark is boiled for 5-10 minutes. The resulting broth is taken half a teaspoon three times a day before meals. A strict dosage should be followed in this recipe, as pomegranate bark has a strong toxic effect. This recipe not only destroys parasites, but also cleanses the liver.

Walnuts

Take four tablespoons of ground green (unripe) nuts, mix with 200 ml of salted hot water and leave for half an hour. The infusion should be filtered and consumed throughout the day, and then take a laxative.

Chanterelles

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You can prepare an infusion of chanterelle mushrooms, since the pulp of these mushrooms contains substances that have a toxic effect on parasites. But it is known that during heat treatment all the beneficial substances of mushrooms disappear. Therefore, the infusion must be prepared as follows: take 100 g of chopped chanterelles (or 200 g of dried mushrooms), pour 250 ml of pure alcohol. The dishes are tightly closed with a lid and insisted in the refrigerator for 2-3 weeks. During this period, the infusion must be churned out periodically. The finished tincture is drunk 1 teaspoon every evening before bedtime. The course of treatment is 1 month. This recipe not only destroys parasites in the body, but also improves human well-being.

Prevention

It is not enough to know how the treatment of ascariasis in adults is carried out; you also need to be familiar with the methods of prevention. In order to maximally protect your body from infection with parasites, you must observe the following rules:

  • when working in the garden, gloves should be worn;
  • vegetables, herbs, berries must be thoroughly washed;
  • before eating greens and vegetables, you must soak them for half an hour in slightly salted water;
  • nails should be trimmed short, since parasite eggs accumulate under the nail roller;
  • hands should be thoroughly washed with warm water and soap before preparing food;
  • keep the living space clean and tidy;
  • teach children to practice hand hygiene from an early age.

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