Enterobiasis In Children: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Table of contents:

Enterobiasis In Children: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment
Enterobiasis In Children: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Video: Enterobiasis In Children: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Worm Infection in Babies - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 2023, February
Anonim

The most common parasitic disease in children is enterobiasis. First of all, small children are infected with it, because in the process of learning about the world around them, they touch everything with their hands, gnaw and taste different objects. It is well known that the eggs of pinworms, which provoke enterobiasis, are very resistant in the environment. They are found everywhere, both on the street and in the house: on household items, on doorknobs, on toys, on carpets, on the floor, on the fur of your beloved pet, on the grass, in the soil, and are picked up and carried away by dust. Therefore, it is not difficult for either adults or children to become infected with enterobiasis. However, adults know how to take care of themselves, they observe the rules of personal hygiene and therefore they are protected, unlike babies who cannot do this on their own.

Image
Image

Content

  1. Enterobiasis - a description of the disease
  2. Ways of infection
  3. Signs of enterobiasis
  4. Treatment of enterobiasis in children
  5. Enterobiasis treatment
  6. Drugs
  7. Prevention
  8. Consequences of enterobiasis in a child

Enterobiasis - a description of the disease

Pinworms are small worms with a pointed end of the body that belong to the class of roundworms (nematodes). They have a powerful reproductive system and produce millions of eggs per day. Pinworm eggs are colorless, they are well translucent, larvae are visible in them at any stage of development. The microscopic size of the eggs allows them to freely enter the oral cavity and infect the body. Once swallowed, they enter the small intestine, mature there to a certain state, and then small worms are released from them.

Image
Image

After about a month, they become adults and begin to reproduce. During egg-laying, female pinworms migrate outward at night and lay eggs in the perianal folds of the anus or in the perineum of the genital organs. The laid eggs become invasive (infectious) after 4 hours and, once they get on the child's bedding or underwear, on the hands and under his nails, they cause re-infection with enterobiasis.

The source of infection is a person infected with pinworms.

Ways of infection

There are a number of factors that contribute to infection with enterobiasis in a child:

  1. The habit of licking hands. Many babies suck their fingers, taste various household items.
  2. The habit of biting nails, biting the skin around them.
  3. Child's inability to practice personal hygiene. Small children, due to their age, do not know how to wash their hands on their own, to monitor their neatness.
  4. When the baby teeth wobble, the child experiences discomfort, so he constantly touches them with his hands.
  5. Use of common household items. The child must have his own personal items.
  6. Contact with pets. Our pets are not a source of pinworm infection. On the contrary, this person infects domestic cats and dogs with pinworms, which are located on the animal's fur. Thus, after stroking the pet, the pinworm eggs remain on the child's hands and through the hands they enter the mouth.

Very often children in preschool groups become infected with enterobiasis. The more time a child spends in childcare, the higher the chance of infection. Measures for the prevention of enterobiasis are quite simple, but it is impossible to completely exclude infection, since preschool children are dependent and their actions are unconscious.

Signs of enterobiasis

The symptoms of enterobiasis in children correspond to the general symptoms of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Pathology in children is suspected if the following symptoms are present:

  • abdominal pain below the navel;
  • itching in the anus;
  • vaginal itching in girls;
  • stomach pain after eating;
  • periodic nausea, not associated with errors in nutrition;
  • periodic intestinal colic;
  • frequent constipation and diarrhea, as well as their alternation;
  • restless sleep;
  • decrease in the body's defenses;
  • frequent viral and colds against the background of reduced immunity;
  • skin diseases in the form of atopic dermatitis, eczema and urticaria;
  • cough for no reason;
  • recurrent conjunctivitis;
  • prolonged rhinitis and sinusitis.

A child with enterobiasis sleeps restlessly, often wakes up, combs himself in his sleep, cries and grinds his teeth. It is generally accepted that pinworms are harmless in themselves and do not seriously harm the health of the child. However, they can move to the liver and biliary tract, where they can provoke inflammatory processes.

Image
Image

They can also crawl into the cecum and cause an attack of appendicitis, and once in the vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus and urinary tract in girls, they can cause inflammation of these organs and systems. Sometimes pinworms can penetrate the lungs, eyes, and nose, requiring surgery to remove them.

Treatment of enterobiasis in children

The diagnosis of this disease is of certain difficulty, since enterobiasis is characterized by a variety of symptoms. Currently, the most reliable method for diagnosing enterobiasis in a child is a smear for enterobiasis. Analysis for enterobiasis in children is performed by scraping from the skin surface in the perianal folds. Before taking the analysis, the child should not be washed, so as not to wash off the laid eggs of pinworms. A negative test result does not yet mean that the child does not have worms. In order to get an accurate result, I repeat the scraping for enterobiasis in children several more times. Also, a smear for enterobiasis in children is taken with adhesive tape. The adhesive tape is applied to the skin for a few seconds, and then carefully removed and taken to the laboratory.Stool diagnostics and serological blood tests are usually not used for enterobiasis, since these tests are not informative.

Enterobiasis treatment

To date, there are many drugs for the treatment of enterobiasis in a short time. However, parasitic infections are not treated only with pharmacological drugs, especially when it comes to enterobiasis. After all, the eggs of these parasites are found everywhere in the environment: on toys, in the hands of a child, in the hands of other children, on the floor, on common objects. Thus, there is a constant reinvasion (re-infection) of this infection. Therefore, drug treatment promotes healing only for a short time.

Image
Image

For the treatment of enterobiasis in children, various schemes are used, which are individually selected by the doctor for each specific case. Thus, all therapeutic measures are divided into three stages:

  • treatment with pharmacological agents;
  • preventive measures to prevent re-infection;
  • the second course of treatment with medication;

Drugs

There are the following drugs for the treatment of enterobiasis in children:

  • Pirantel pamoat (in the form of: tablets and suspensions);
  • Mebendazole (Vermox);
  • Albendazole (nemosol, normil).

The dose of the medicine is prescribed only by the doctor, depending on the weight and age of the child. Treatment takes place under the strict supervision of the attending physician. He assesses the action of the medicine, observes the treatment process, monitors the child's condition and the body's response. When pinworms are detected in a child, all family members undergo treatment, otherwise the whole family will be re-infected. After the end of the course of therapy, special hygienic measures should be performed, which are aimed at preventing re-infection with enterobiasis. Two weeks after the first course of treatment, the intake of antihelminthic drugs must be repeated.

Prevention

Some experts are inclined to believe that it is pointless to carry out drug prevention of enterobiasis. Because taking the pill today, the child can get pinworms tomorrow or the day after tomorrow.

Image
Image

Other experts believe that once a year it is necessary to carry out a preventive course of treatment with Pirantel. It is advisable to do this two weeks after the start of visiting kindergarten in the autumn. But all preventive measures will be useless without observing sanitary standards and personal hygiene:

  • teach a child from an early age to be neat and tidy;
  • frequent hand washing, especially before meals and after using the toilet;
  • wean the child to take hands, objects, toys in his mouth;
  • instill in children the rules of personal hygiene;
  • prohibit the child from biting nails, licking and sucking fingers;
  • for the night, children wear panties with elastic bands on the hips;
  • frequent change of underwear and bed linen;
  • obligatory ironing of linen with a hot iron;
  • regular wet cleaning of premises with washing floors with a disinfectant (they peel off helminth eggs from surfaces);
  • do not sweep the floors, but vacuum, so as not to raise the dust that contains helminth eggs;
  • clean carpets only with a vacuum cleaner and a brush with detergent;
  • washing soft toys in a washing machine at temperatures above 55 C;
  • the child's diet should contain a lot of fresh fruits, vegetables, berries and herbs;
  • exclude complex carbohydrates from the child's diet;
  • prohibit the child from sleeping with adults in the same bed;
  • after contact with pets, wash your child's hands; carry out regular deworming of pets;
  • forbid animals to sleep in the same bed with a child;
  • the child must have his own personal utensils, towel and bed linen.

Consequences of enterobiasis in a child

First of all, enterobiasis in children affects the immune system as the level of interferon in the blood decreases. Therefore, children, in addition to a parasitic infection, often suffer from viral and infectious diseases. There is also such a phenomenon as a decrease in the effectiveness of vaccinations. If there are helminths in the child's body, then the effectiveness of vaccinations decreases. At the same time, the formation of immunity decreases.

The child also lags behind in physical and mental development. Pinworms in the process of their vital activity secrete metabolic products that are toxic to the child. As a result, intoxication and allergization of the whole organism develops. The child becomes moody, lethargic, gets tired quickly, suffers from headache and general exhaustion of the body. He develops anemia and there is a deficiency of vital microelements, which provokes a delay in physical development.

With the timely diagnosis of the disease and subsequent treatment, complications in the child are not observed. In advanced cases, with multiple reinvasions, there is a lesion of the urinary tract and vulvovaginitis (in girls).

Popular by topic