Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, February
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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease. The disease is characterized by multiple lesions of internal and external organs - from the nervous system and heart muscle to the eyes. The disease is often chronic without any significant symptoms. World statistics of morbidity are disappointing: in the countries of South and Latin America, the values ​​reach 90%, in Europe and America - about 25%. The most dangerous is toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

Content

  • 1 Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis
  • 2 Clinical manifestations
  • 3 Symptoms
  • 4 Diagnostic measures
  • 5 Pregnancy therapy

    • 5.1 Diagnosis of the fetus in the presence of toxoplasmosis in the mother
    • 5.2 Dangers of toxoplasmosis for women in position
    • 5.3 What to consider when planning a pregnancy

Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis

The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is the simplest microbes. Outwardly, they look like a small orange slice, sometimes they are round or oval in shape. The life cycle of these protozoa includes only one stage - reproduction, regardless of the species (sexual or asexual). For the development of toxoplasmosis, special conditions are not required.

Also, to avoid infection, you should not touch your mouth with your hands after cleaning the cat or after any other contact with the pet's excrement. It is very rare, but there are cases when the disease was detected after a blood transfusion.

The most dangerous situation is when a pregnant woman becomes infected, since the infection can be transmitted to an unborn child with very harmful consequences

Clinical manifestations

For most healthy people, toxoplasmosis proceeds unnoticed, and for pregnant women it is dangerous - both for the woman herself and for the child. But in reality, the likelihood that a woman will "get" such a disease is small (according to statistics - no more than 1% out of 100 pregnant women). In addition, a large percentage of women are immune to toxoplasmosis, and the likelihood of intrauterine infection is practically zero.

However, a certain pattern has been identified, in which the disease most often occurs. So, the shorter the gestation period, the lower the risk of intrauterine infection. However, if infection occurs, the consequences for the fetus will be most severe. If the gestation period is already long, the probability of transmission of the disease to the baby is higher, but the consequences of toxoplasmosis will be minimal.

The main thing is to understand that toxoplasmosis during pregnancy poses a threat to the fetus only if the mother became infected during its gestation period. If a woman is ill before pregnancy (at least three months), then there is no danger for the unborn child. In a situation where a woman loses a child against the background of toxoplasmosis, the disease does not pose a threat to the next pregnancy.

Symptoms

As a rule, there are practically no symptoms of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Sometimes toxoplasmosis resembles mononucleosis. In severe cases, it can lead to rapid pneumonitis or fatal encephalomyelitis. Chorioretinitis may develop, that is, eye damage, especially if toxoplasmosis is congenital. In the presence of HIV infection, reactivation of toxoplasmosis with parallel development of a brain abscess is likely.

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In addition, the disease is divided into chronic and latent forms. The second has practically no symptoms and can appear after an exacerbation. And acute toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a febrile state and general intoxication of the body. A rash may appear, the liver and spleen may enlarge. As a rule, after this, the disease becomes chronic, which is accompanied by periods of remission and exacerbation.

Against the background of a chronic disease, arthralgia and intoxication pass. There are aching pains in the abdomen, which are accompanied by nausea and constipation; seals can be felt in the thickness of the muscles. Many women note the appearance of vegetative-vascular dystonia, all kinds of disorders in the endocrine system.

Diagnostic measures

An accurate diagnosis can be made only on complex laboratory parameters. What matters is how well the history was collected. The epidemiological prerequisites are important, whether the pregnant woman had contacts with pets, namely, with cats, what kind of contacts and with what animals the woman had. It should be found out whether raw or semi-raw meat, minced meat or unwashed fruits were eaten, how much the woman observes hygiene and other factors.

The latent form greatly complicates diagnostic measures. Diagnosis is based on serological methods. We'll look at them in more detail below.

  1. Indirect immunofluorescence reaction. This indicator manifests itself starting from the 1st week from the onset of the disease. The maximum rate is reached within a month. In chronic disease, it can be an indicator for a long period (even several years).
  2. Complement binding reaction. The result shows itself if at least 2 weeks have passed since the moment of infection.
  3. Linked immunosorbent assay. It is he who shows the best results. With it, immunoglobulins are detected that can differentiate almost all forms of the disease.

Additional diagnostic measures include a skin test for allergies. But such an analysis can give a result, provided that at least 4 weeks have passed since the moment of infection.

In addition, in the general blood test in the presence of toxoplasmosis, a decrease in leukocyte counts is observed. Even if the leukocytes are in perfect order, there may be an increase in the number of lymphocyte fraction.

Pregnancy therapy

Treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is possible only if it is at 12-16 weeks. Otherwise, the drugs will negatively affect the formation and development of the fetus.

Attention! Self-medication for this disease is prohibited

If toxoplasmosis is latent and does not show any symptoms, then if the test results are positive, it will not need to be treated. As a rule, with a severe form of the disease, a woman is advised to terminate the pregnancy, since the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is associated with chemotherapy. If a pregnant woman refuses to have an abortion, before treatment, the woman is given a written consent to chemotherapy without any guarantees regarding the health of the unborn child.

Diagnosis of the fetus in the presence of toxoplasmosis in the mother

When a disease is detected in the mother, the fetus is also subjected to a thorough examination. They start with a puncture of the fetal bladder, take the amniotic fluid for analysis. But it is possible to identify a disease in a fetus only if the mother is sick for at least a month.

Dangers of toxoplasmosis for women in position

The main thing that is dangerous to toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a spontaneous abortion or premature birth. It is not uncommon for a child to be born dead or infected. According to statistics, 35% of mothers with toxoplasmosis have children born with the congenital form of this disease.

If the mother falls ill 6 or more months before pregnancy, then the risk of transmitting the disease to the baby is practically minimal.

Things to Consider When Planning a Pregnancy

It is necessary to beware of toxoplasmosis when planning pregnancy. In particular, the issue of prevention is relevant for women with weakened immunity.

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  1. If there is frequent contact with the ground in your personal plot or in another place, then you should definitely wear gloves. Even through the slightest cracks in the skin of the hands, the disease can penetrate into the body.
  2. Before eating fruits, herbs and vegetables, you must wash them well, as well as your hands.
  3. Hands should be washed thoroughly after washing the toilet and pet.
  4. Avoid kissing animals, as parasites can be in their saliva. If you are worried about whether your cat is sick, take his feces for analysis. Do not give the animal fresh meat and fish, do not allow it to walk outside.
  5. Hand wash should also be done thoroughly during cooking after handling fresh meat.
  6. You should not eat meat dishes with blood.
  7. When preparing raw meat dishes, wear gloves so as not to accidentally injure yourself or introduce parasites into your body.

In order not to find out what toxoplasmosis is during pregnancy and its treatment, you should register with a gynecologist in time and undergo all examinations. If you suspect toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, you cannot refuse diagnosis, especially from a fetal examination.

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