Quinine: Instructions For Use Of The Medicine And Its Effect

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Quinine: Instructions For Use Of The Medicine And Its Effect
Quinine: Instructions For Use Of The Medicine And Its Effect

Video: Quinine: Instructions For Use Of The Medicine And Its Effect

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Video: Anti malarial drugs - Quinine ( Pharmacology by Dr Rajesh Gubba ) 2023, January
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Quinine is the main alkaloid of the bark of the cinchona tree (Cinchona succirubra), which reduces the number of protozoa, has analgesic and antipyretic effects. The tablets have a strong bitter taste.

Content

  • 1 Properties
  • 2 Terms of use
  • 3 The negative effect of the drug
  • 4 In what cases it is applied
  • 5 Application rules
  • 6 Pharmacodynamics
  • 7 Pharmacokinetics
  • 8 Use for complications of malaria

The drug is often used in the fight against plasmodium malaria, has other indications for use.

In medicine, various forms of medicine are used:

  • quinine hydrochloride - exists in the form of a white powder, consisting of microcrystals, or colorless shiny silky crystals. The substance is administered orally, rarely in the form of injections. Patients complain of a strong bitter taste;
  • quinine dihydrochloride - structurally similar to the form of quinine hydrochloride. Produced mainly in the form of injections, injected subcutaneously or intravenously;
  • quinine sulfate - white fine crystalline powder or colorless silky crystals. Used in pill form, subcutaneous injections have often resulted in necrosis and abscesses.

Properties

  • Differs in high solubility in organic solvents.
  • It is an R-dimer.
  • Has an alkaline reaction.
  • The bitter taste is distinct even at a dilution of 1: 10,000.
  • Weathered in air.
  • It dissolves well in boiling water.

The main directions for application:

  1. The instructions for the use of quinine indicate malaria, the drug is especially effective for erythrocyte forms. In some cases, the agent is used as a preventive measure.
  2. With obstetrics. The drug has an irritating effect on smooth muscles, is used for prolonged labor and for contraction of the uterus in the postpartum period.
  3. Efficacy in paroxysmal tachycardia has been proven by research.
  4. The remedy is used for keratitis, is available in the form of drops.

Terms of use

  • the drug is administered orally at 1 g per day, the dose is divided by 2-3 times, the course of administration is 5-7 days. The action of quinine explains the decrease in mortality from the disease. It is an excellent remedy for complicated forms of malaria. Quinine is the only substance to which Plasmodium malaria cannot develop immunity;
  • with a decrease in generic activity, the drug is applied at 0.2-0.25 g once every half hour, it is permissible to take 5 doses of the drug. The compound can be combined with other drugs that increase the ability to contract the uterine muscles. The use of quinine during pregnancy is prohibited until the moment when it may be needed during childbirth;
  • quinine is used at elevated body temperature;
  • effective pain reliever;
  • the medicine is used for fever caused by intoxication;
  • activates the production of gastric juice, increases appetite;
  • the drug can be used to reduce anxiety and stress;
  • the tool has found application in cardiology as a drug that normalizes the work of the heart muscle.

The negative effect of the drug

  1. At a high dosage, the agent negatively affects vision and hearing.
  2. With intramuscular injection, soft tissues can be affected, which leads to necrosis, and in advanced cases to a subcutaneous abscess. The optimal form of drug consumption is tablets.
  3. Nausea, vomiting.
  4. Noise in ears.
  5. Dizziness, headache.
  6. Loss of consciousness.
  7. Hemoglobinuric fever.
  8. Hyperemia of the skin.
  9. Sleep disturbance.
  10. Rash.
  11. Digestive upset.
  12. Cardiopalmus.
  13. Tremors, convulsions.
  14. In the case of high sensitivity to the drug, there may be complications.
  15. In case of severe poisoning, the following may occur:
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  • sensitivity to bright light,
  • a sharp decrease in vision,
  • apathy that the patient cannot cope with,
  • unrelated speech,
  • unbalanced breathing
  • lowering blood pressure to critical values,
  • coma,
  • lethal outcome occurs at a dosage of 8-12 g.

Emergency Pickling Assistance:

  • gastric lavage;
  • induce vomiting;
  • cleansing with enemas;
  • the introduction of respiratory analeptics;
  • the use of drugs to normalize the work of the heart muscle.

In what cases does it apply

The product obtained from plant materials has a high biological activity on the human body. Quinine is actively absorbed into the bloodstream, enters other environments of the body, and is not compatible with breastfeeding. The use is especially dangerous:

  • during pregnancy;
  • when breastfeeding;
  • with diseases of the hearing organs;
  • with unbalanced work of the muscles of the heart;
  • with hemorrhagic fever;
  • in case of body reactions to the drug;
  • with extreme caution in case of hypersensitivity to the drug, the physician must balance the benefits with the risk to human health.

Application rules

  1. It is forbidden to use the drug on its own, because of the risk of complications it is better to take it in a hospital under supervision.
  2. There must be a reason to receive the drug, the purchase is possible only with a doctor's prescription.
  3. In complex forms of malaria, intravenous administration of the drug is allowed.
  4. Special caution with the guards.

Using a medication to treat heart failure:

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  1. The drug is used to treat adults and children.
  2. The dose should be selected by the doctor, based on the complexity of the disease, complexion, individual reactions of the body.
  3. Combined use with caffeine, ephedrine, camphor is recommended.
  4. Injections of the substance are contraindicated in children under 15 years of age.

Pharmacodynamics

  1. The mechanism of action of the substance is a plasmolytic poison.
  2. Acts on the central nervous system departments.
  3. Actively affects the centers of thermoregulation.
  4. Quinine is one of the most effective drugs for treating Plasmodium malaria. Protozoa do not have time to develop stable immunity.
  5. Most effective for three days of fever than for four days.
  6. The action of quinine can stimulate the birth process.
  7. Reduces the mobility of leukocytes in human blood.
  8. Helps to reduce myocardial excitability
  9. In this case, the period of refractoriness is lengthened.

Pharmacokinetics

passes into all environments of the body in 20 minutes, which is quite fast. The drug has high biological activity

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  • the circulation time of the substance in the blood is 8 hours, then the concentration of the drug decreases;
  • neutralization of the drug occurs in the liver;
  • the bulk of quinine is excreted in the urine, the smaller part in the feces.

Application for complications of malaria

  1. The drug is administered intravenously to increase the rate of action.
  2. The medicine is first injected with a syringe into a vein, the solution should be equal to body temperature, about 35 ° C.
  3. The next injection is carried out subcutaneously, 1 ml of 50% of the drug.
  4. Next, 1 ml of 50% quinine solution is injected after 8 to 16 hours.
  5. After such a treatment regimen, they switch to taking quinine internally within 2 days.

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