Table of contents:
- Characteristics of amebiasis
- How the disease develops and possible complications
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Preventive measures for dysentery amebiasis
Video: Dysentery Amoeba: Prevention And Preventive Measures
Dysenteric amebiasis is an infectious disease in which severe lesions occur in all parts of the intestine, less often in other organs. Prevention of amebiasis is a serious undertaking, and in order to know its features, you need to have an idea of the infection itself.
- 1 Characteristics of amebiasis
- 2 How the disease develops and possible complications
- 3 Diagnosis of the disease
- 4 Preventive measures for dysentery amebiasis
- 5 Forecast
Characteristics of amebiasis
The disease is caused by amoeba - parasites belonging to the species of protozoa. Amoebiasis is an exclusively anthroponous infection. The source of amebiasis is a sick person, and not always with severe symptoms. An infected person with a latent course of the disease can secrete cysts - life forms of the pathogen that are stable in the external environment. But if a sick person has clinical symptoms, then he is not so dangerous to others, since the pathogens that a person excretes are unstable.
Insects can also be sources of infection - flies, ants, cockroaches, which on their paws can transfer the pathogen to food or household items.
Ways of transmission of dysentery amebiasis:
- Fecal-oral - through dirty hands, products contaminated with a pathogen.
- Contact-household - through items of use that could be contaminated and contaminated with feces of a sick person.
Not always, after contact with the pathogen, infection occurs, very often the immunity copes with the attack. But there are factors that reduce the body's resistance. These include:
- Helminthic invasion of various types.
- HIV infection.
- Frequent stressful conditions.
- Fasting or strict diet.
Dysentery amoebiasis affects people of any age, but more often this disease occurs in children under 5 years of age.
How the disease develops and possible complications
After entering the human body, amoeba cysts in most cases settle in the large intestine, feed on its contents. They can just live this way without harming the owner. But if a person has weakened immunity due to any of the above factors, then the protozoa can begin to parasitize in the tissues, thereby destroying the intestinal walls - from small holes to extensive ulcers.
Because of these damages, toxins and harmful substances enter the blood of a sick person, and the whole body is poisoned.
There may be a large blood vessel at the site of intestinal perforation - in this case, severe intestinal bleeding may occur, and if it is not detected in time, this poses a huge threat to human health and even life. Amoebiasis can also affect the appendix of the intestine, thereby causing inflammation (appendicitis).
Main clinical manifestations:
- Cramping abdominal pain.
- General malaise.
- Temperature rise to 37–38 ° C.
- Frequent loose stools with blood clots.
- Nausea and vomiting.
This symptomatology manifests itself in the case when the protozoa have already settled in the intestinal mucosa and began to damage it during reproduction and further life.
But it also happens that the pathogen lives in the human body for a long time, but does not penetrate deep into the intestinal tissue, but lives on the surface of the membranes. In such cases, an infected person does not even know about the disease, since there are no prerequisites, but he is a carrier of dysentery amebiasis.
If the drug therapy of dysentery amebiasis is started at the wrong time or is neglected at all, then the disease can give serious complications - dehydration of the body due to severe diarrhea, abscess formation of the liver and intestinal parts, severe brain damage leading to neurological complications (paresis, convulsions), etc..d.
Diagnosis of the disease
For early detection and treatment, the following diagnostic measures are very important:
- Detailed questioning and collection of anamnestic data from the patient.
- Fecal examination, where the pathogen can be isolated microscopically.
- A blood test for antibodies to the pathogen.
Preventive measures for dysentery amebiasis
If a person who has turned to a specialist has confirmed this disease, then first of all it is necessary to take preventive measures in the patient's family - this is a kind of prevention of amebiasis. To begin with, all family members of the patient and people who were in close contact with him should undergo a full examination. As mentioned above, not all people have pronounced symptoms, and any family member can be a carrier of the disease. And this must be checked and excluded.
Prevention measures must be followed by everyone and at all times. In preschool institutions, in schools, conversations are regularly held, children are taught correct personal hygiene, they talk about the most common intestinal infections and how not to get infected with them.
The general prevention of amoebic dysentery consists of the following points, the observance of which will protect you from unpleasant consequences:
- Be sure to very carefully process berries, fruits and vegetables - rinse them with water, preferably warm.
- For drinking, in no case should you use water from a tap or from questionable sources. It is advisable to drink only boiled or bottled water that has passed several degrees of purification. Remember that water is an excellent habitat for the simplest microorganisms.
- Do not leave baked goods, jams and other food products unattended on the table unattended, especially in the warm season. Insects can sit on food and contaminate them with protozoan cysts.
- During tourist trips, especially to countries with a low standard of living and hygiene, it is not recommended to eat in questionable eating places. All fruits and vegetables that you are going to eat there, rinse with hot water, preferably then pour over them with boiling water - this guarantees the destruction of amoeba cysts.
- Do not buy food from open stalls on the streets - this includes all kinds of spices, baked goods, etc. - anything that you cannot wash at home.
- Observance of personal hygiene - washing hands before meals, after the street, visiting the toilet, close contact with other people. You should always wash your hands with soap.
If there is a person infected with amoebic dysentery at home, it is necessary to ensure that he has separate dishes and hygiene products.
In the house, you need to carry out daily wet cleaning using chlorine-containing products. A disinfectant solution should be used to treat not only the floors and plumbing in the bathroom, but also all washable surfaces in the house - tables, window sills, chairs, bedside tables, etc. The correct treatment of a sick person's linen - underwear, underwear, bed linen - is of great importance. Everything should be thoroughly boiled and ironed on both sides.
Prevention of dysentery amoeba includes quite feasible conditions, it is based on basic adherence to personal hygiene and the rules known to us from childhood. Observing all the prescriptions, you will protect your body from such an unpleasant disease and its undesirable consequences.
As for the treatment, it should be started immediately, without delay. You must carefully follow all the doctor's prescriptions, take medications strictly in time and dosage, and be sure to "heal" the infection, do not abandon therapy as soon as you feel better.
Amebic dysentery can relapse after a while, often due to unfinished therapy. Only after completing the full course of treatment and a three-fold negative fecal examination, the specialist can report recovery.
The outcome of the intestinal form of amoebic dysentery is favorable, and a complete cure and the absence of relapses are possible. If amoebiasis has struck the parts of the brain, then the prognosis depends only on the severity of the disease and the therapeutic measures taken. A complete cure is also possible.