Pork Tapeworm: What Is And How It Gets Infected, Symptoms In Humans And Treatment

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Pork Tapeworm: What Is And How It Gets Infected, Symptoms In Humans And Treatment
Pork Tapeworm: What Is And How It Gets Infected, Symptoms In Humans And Treatment

Video: Pork Tapeworm: What Is And How It Gets Infected, Symptoms In Humans And Treatment

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Video: Eradicating Pork Tapeworm Transmission 2023, February
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A lot of people all over the world suffer from helminthic invasions. However, some of them suffer from pork tapeworm, leading to the development of teniasis. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the features of the treatment of the invasion in order to get rid of it in a timely manner.

Content

  • 1 Parasite characteristics

    • 1.1 Structure and life cycle
    • 1.2 Localization
    • 1.3 Ways of infection
  • 2 What is the difference between bovine tapeworm and pork tapeworm
  • 3 Signs and symptoms of infection in humans

    • 3.1 In the brain
    • 3.2 In the eye
  • 4 Diagnostics

    • 4.1 Diagnosis by microscopic examination
    • 4.2 Identification of parasites
    • 4.3 Blood test for pork tapeworm
    • 4.4 Differential diagnosis
  • 5 Which doctor should I go to?
  • 6 Treatment of invasion

    • 6.1 Drug treatment
    • 6.2 Surgical intervention
    • 6.3 Traditional methods
  • 7 Diet in the treatment of porcine tapeworm
  • 8 Possible complications
  • 9 Prognosis of recovery
  • 10 Preventive measures
  • 11 Conclusion

Parasite characteristics

Before starting treatment, it is necessary to familiarize yourself in more detail with the characteristics of the parasite.

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Structure and life cycle

The parasite belongs to the class of tapeworms and consists of a neck, a head, and a ribbon-like strobilus. The length of adults increases to three and a half meters. The most important part of the parasite's body is its head, on which there are about 20 hooks and 3-4 suckers. The worm has no organs that are responsible for breathing, digesting food, and circulating blood. The parasite has a large muscular tube that houses the uterus.

Localization

Many are interested in which part of the human body the worm parasitizes. Adult parasites are localized in the small intestine, which is why people develop signs of teniasis. Pork tapeworm larvae can be found in other organs. Often, helminth larvae are located in the apple of the eye or in the brain.

Infection routes

The chain is characterized by a fecal-oral transmission mechanism, and it enters the body of most people after eating food. Most often, people become infected with helminths in the following cases:

  • regular use of dishes made from poorly roasted pork;
  • the use of unfiltered liquid in which the pork tapeworm lives;
  • non-compliance with hygiene rules.

People are highly susceptible to helminthic invasions. Therefore, a healthy person can easily become infected with helminth larvae, which later lead not only to teniasis, but also to the development of other serious pathologies

What is the difference between bovine tapeworm and pork tapeworm

Many people confuse bovine and pork tapeworms, since these parasites are very similar in appearance and belong to the class of tapeworms. To distinguish between them, you need to familiarize yourself with the distinctive features.

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Each of the considered helminths is dangerous to humans in its own way. However, the greatest danger to humans is the pork tapeworm. The bovine is less dangerous, since for him people are the main owner. It develops in the intestines.

Also, the differences between these worms lie in their intermediate hosts. Pig tapeworm larvae develop only in wild boars, and in bovine animals belonging to cattle can become temporary hosts. Penetrating into animals, parasites begin to lay larvae in muscle tissues. They enter the human body when he eats poorly cooked bacon or meat, in which larvae are present. When young individuals enter the human body, they enter the intestines and begin to reproduce there.

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Another distinctive feature of parasites is the peculiarities of their structure. For example, a pork chain has hooks on the surface of the head that a bovine does not have. They also differ in their maximum length. The pig grows only up to 3-4 meters, and the bovine can grow up to 10-15 meters.

Signs and symptoms of infection in humans

The presence of helminths in the body can manifest itself in various ways. Sometimes the pathology is asymptomatic, but there are cases when a person's well-being deteriorates sharply. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the main signs of pork tapeworm in order to detect the parasite in time.

In the brain

With the development of extraintestinal invasion, parasites penetrate the brain and negatively affect its work. In this case, the following problems appear:

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  1. Cysticercosis of the cerebral hemispheres. With damage to the cerebral hemispheres, patients develop cerebral hypertension. This leads to dizziness and increased headache attacks. Some patients develop epilepsy and have difficulty speaking. With complications of pathology, depressive conditions may become more frequent.
  2. Cysticercosis of the cerebral ventricles. Sometimes parasites enter the ventricles, which makes patients feel worse. The main symptoms of the pathology are headache, nausea and vomiting. Also, there are attacks of dizziness, which intensify with sharp turns of the head.
  3. It is worst if tapeworm penetrates the base of the brain, as this leads to the development of signs of meningitis and damage to the nerves of the skull.

In the eye

Due to ocular cysticercosis, patients develop a chronic form of inflammation of the optic organ. Patients show symptoms of retinitis and conjunctivitis. The larvae of helminths penetrate any part of the eye, which leads to a significant deterioration in vision. If you do not consult a doctor in a timely manner and do not engage in the therapy of pathology, the patient's apple will atrophy, and he will be completely blind.

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Diagnostics

If there is a suspicion that a person is developing teniasis, a preliminary diagnosis will have to be made. Sometimes, for diagnosis, it is enough to familiarize yourself with the symptoms of which the patient complains. However, often the appearance of a pork tapeworm is not accompanied by severe symptoms, so special examinations have to be carried out to confirm the diagnosis.

Diagnosis by microscopic examination

Examination of feces with a microscope is considered quite effective, since it allows the doctor to identify the segments and laid eggs of helminths. However, during this diagnostic procedure, it will not be possible to fully confirm that a person suffers from teniasis, since microscopic examination will not help to distinguish laid tapeworm eggs.

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To confirm that there are helminths in the patient's body that led to teniasis, it is necessary to make sure that the segments do not go out together with the feces.

Identification of parasites

To confirm the diagnosis, they are often engaged in the identification of parasites, in which they try to identify the structural features of the worms in the patient's body.

During the examination, doctors pay special attention to the worms uterus. In the pork tapeworm, about 12 small branches leave it, and in the bovine tapeworm, more than 30. The ovaries are also examined, the structure of which also differs in parasites. In a bovine tapeworm, they are two-lobed, and in a pork tapeworm, they are three-lobed.

Pork tapeworm blood test

The most common way to diagnose many diseases is a general blood test, without which it is rather difficult to establish an accurate diagnosis. When studying the results, attention is paid to the number of eosinophils. If their number is increased, then we can talk about the development of teniasis in the patient.

When a bovine tapeworm appears in the body, cysticercosis often develops. The development of this pathology is evidenced by specific antibodies that are in the blood.

Differential diagnosis

Specialists are engaged in differential diagnostics in order to exclude other diseases of the digestive system, the symptoms of which are similar to teniasis. These pathologies include Crohn's disease, cholecystitis, and gastroenteritis.

Which doctor should I go to?

When signs of the presence of helminths in the body appear, many people do not know which specialist they should contact for diagnostics and further treatment. Therefore, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the list of doctors dealing with worms and the diseases they cause in advance. There are three specialists who will help people with pork tapeworm:

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  1. Infectionist. These doctors are engaged in the study and treatment of pathologies that have appeared due to the effects of helminths. Infectionists are contacted to determine the cause of the appearance of pests in the intestines and diagnose infectious diseases. After carrying out all the diagnostic procedures, infectious disease specialists will not only tell you what caused the worms, but also help you get rid of them quickly.
  2. Parasitologist. Such doctors specialize in the detailed study of most parasites, including tapeworms. Patients are referred to parasitologists to determine the type of worm and its location. Then the doctor prescribes effective drugs that will help get rid of the tapeworms.
  3. Helminthologist. This is a highly specialized specialist who deals only with helminths. He is able to determine the type of worm, its size and diseases that have appeared due to the parasite. Helminthologists are consulted not only for the treatment of the initial stages of the development of pathologies, but also for serious complications.

Invasion treatment

Experts advise treating the invasion immediately after confirming the diagnosis. This will help prevent helminth larvae from entering the stomach and save the patient from developing complications. There are three methods that are most often used in the treatment of the disease.

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Drug treatment

When carrying out drug therapy, they use special means to combat parasites. With their help, it is possible to quickly cleanse the body not only of larvae, but also of eggs and adult worms. Most of these drugs are toxic, therefore, before using them, be sure to consult a doctor.

Among the effective drugs against pork tapeworm, the following are distinguished:

  1. I fed. The drug belongs to the group of anthelmintic drugs, which have a wide range of effects on the body. In the manufacture of medicines, albendazole is used, which helps to clear the intestines of worms. The substance enters the body of parasites and disrupts the metabolic process, which leads to their death. They drink one Vormil tablet every day.
  2. Pirantel. It is a very effective drug that has an anthelmintic effect. The components from the composition of Pirantel enter the muscles of the worms, due to which their nerve endings cease to function. The medicine is prescribed to combat larvae and adult worms. Parintel is drunk after lunch, once a day, for a week.
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Surgical intervention

Sometimes, to get rid of the parasite, you have to resort to surgical treatment. If the disease is accompanied by complications that negatively affect the work of vital organs, you should immediately seek help from a surgeon. Most often, surgical intervention is required for patients in whom helminth larvae have penetrated the peritoneum and begin to develop in it. If the operation is not carried out in a timely manner, the patient may experience intestinal stagnation, jaundice and a purulent form of cholangitis.

Traditional methods

To improve the effectiveness of drug therapy and accelerate the treatment of symptoms of pathology, you can use effective traditional medicine. Effective folk remedies include the following:

  1. Herbal decoction. It is known that herbal decoctions help get rid of most diseases, and invasion is no exception. To prepare a medicinal liquid, add 30 grams of mint leaves, 25 grams of buckthorn bark and 20 grams of tansy to a three-liter container with water. All ingredients are stirred in water and boiled for 30-40 minutes. Then the broth is cooled and drunk every day, 100 milliliters.
  2. Pumpkin seeds. Such seeds are classified as effective remedies for worming. The benefits of pumpkin seeds include the fact that they can be used to treat children and pregnant women. In the treatment of invasion, the seeds are eaten dried or raw. Some of them are fried in a pan or soaked in water.
  3. Salted herring. Not many people know that salted herring helps get rid of helminths. To create a remedy, fish fillets are mixed with chopped garlic and yolks of 2-3 chicken eggs. Then 20 grams of millet is poured into a container with the mixture and everything is poured with milk. The prepared mixture is drunk in one go, after which the worms will begin to leave the intestines.

Diet in the treatment of porcine tapeworm

When treating pathology, it is not enough just to drink medicines and use folk remedies. In addition, you need to eat right and follow a diet that will accelerate recovery several times. With a diet, the amount of daily food intake increases up to 4-5 times. In this case, you need to eat in small portions so as not to overload the stomach. The interval between meals should be 2-4 hours.

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To eat right, you need to familiarize yourself with the list of foods that can be eaten with an invasion. Rosehip tea, low-fat cottage cheese, vegetable soups, dried flour products, fresh fruits with vegetables, dishes from low-fat fish or meat are added to the daily diet.

Possible complications

Often, due to the pork tapeworm, complications appear in the body that negatively affect the state of human health. It is known that the parasite is fixed in the intestine by suckers, which is why the inflammatory process develops. This leads to peritonitis, which is considered a dangerous complication. If treatment is not promptly started, the patient may die.

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Another dangerous complication that appears due to invasion is intestinal obstruction. Pathology develops if the length of an adult helminth reaches 3-4 meters, and because of this, it blocks the intestinal cavity.

In addition to the above complications, patients may develop meningitis, cancer, chronic conjunctivitis, heart disease, liver dysfunction, breathing problems, anemia and allergic pathologies. All of these diseases are very serious, some of them fatal.

Recovery prognosis

Despite the fact that invasion often leads to dangerous complications, the prognosis is still favorable for most patients. If the parasite is identified in a timely manner and gets rid of it, the patient's health will be fully restored. However, if the pork tapeworm led to the development of cysticercosis, then the prognosis is not so encouraging. After the appearance of such a pathology, many remain disabled.

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Prevention measures

It is recommended to adhere to preventive measures to protect yourself from infection with pork tapeworm and other helminths. To do this, you should:

  • buy meat products only in specialized stores or supermarkets;
  • choose only those products that have passed sanitary control;
  • store meat in low temperatures so that parasites do not begin to develop in it;
  • never taste minced meat or raw meat;
  • when preparing meat dishes, heat treatment is correct;
  • wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food.

It is also necessary to be regularly monitored by a doctor in order to timely identify parasites in the intestines. This will help get rid of them before the first symptoms appear.

Conclusion

Pork tapeworm is considered a dangerous parasite, due to which infectious diseases can appear. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself in advance with the characteristic features of such a worm, the symptoms of its manifestation and the most common methods of treatment that will help immediately clear the intestines of worms.

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