Rishta Worm: Life Cycle, Where It Lives, Symptoms And Treatment

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Rishta Worm: Life Cycle, Where It Lives, Symptoms And Treatment
Rishta Worm: Life Cycle, Where It Lives, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Rishta Worm: Life Cycle, Where It Lives, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Rishta Worm: Life Cycle, Where It Lives, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Dracunculas Medinensis morphology, Life cycle in hindi, Pathogenesis in hindi, Lab diagnosis 2023, December

The Rishta worm, parasitizing in the muscles and the upper layers of the human subcutaneous tissue, provokes the development of dracunculiasis. This helminth belongs to the roundworm species. Dracunculiasis is accompanied by severe itching, pain, allergies in the form of rashes and urticaria, suffocation, and fever. On the patient's body, ulcers, erythema, and tumors are often formed.


  • 1 General characteristics
  • 2 Life cycle
  • 3 Localization of the parasite and complications
  • 4 Dracunculosis: symptoms
  • 5 Treatment

general characteristics

The warm climate is favorable for the active life of the Rishta. Basically, this parasite inhabits countries located on:

  • the territory of the Middle East;
  • The African continent;
  • the territory of South America;
  • territory of Asia.

The parasite carries out the absorption of nutrients from the host organism due to the presence of 8 papillae located at the head end. The mouth opening is associated with the esophagus. The intestine of the Rishta is atrophied, therefore it is almost absent. In females, the rest of the body is the uterus, which can increase in volume after fertilization.

Life cycle

This parasite is able to carry on its vital activity on human and animal bodies.

  1. Parasitic larvae enter puddles or freshwater reservoirs, where they are swallowed by cyclops crustaceans, which are intermediate hosts.
  2. In the bodies of crustaceans, the larvae develop, undergo molting. This process usually takes about 2 weeks. The grown larval forms of helminths are called microfilariae.
  3. Further, the larvae leave the organism of their intermediate host and go out into the reservoir, where they are expected to be swallowed by the final host.
  4. When contaminated water is consumed, the human or animal organism is affected. Through the intestinal walls, the parasite enters the soft tissue area, and then settles in the muscle fibers. At this point, the parasite becomes sexually mature. This process usually takes 3 months.
  5. After reaching puberty, the mating period begins in individuals, and then the males gradually dissolve in the muscle fibers. Females retain their viability and develop in the body, gradually ending up in the subcutaneous tissue.
  6. During her life, the female secretes a secret that provokes the formation of a boil on the host's skin. Over time, the skin breaks through, and the uterus comes out through the wound that appears.
  7. When the worm comes into contact with water, its body is torn, releasing the larvae into the environment. After that, the parasite dies.

Parasite localization and complications

Most often, Rishta affects the lower extremities. Basically, he settles in the areas:

  • ankles, both from the outside and from the inside;
  • knee joints;
  • the outer part of the feet.

Other parts of the body may also be affected. If the epidermis was affected by a single individual, then the person fully recovers 2 months after its extraction.

A worm in the human body can cause the development of the following dangerous complications:

  • phlegmon;
  • sepsis;
  • gangrene;
  • abscesses.

Dracunculiasis: symptoms

Common in countries with hot climates, the rishta in the host's body is capable of:

  • destroy internal organs;
  • cause allergic reactions in the form of urticaria due to the release of toxic waste products.

It should be borne in mind that the larval stage of the rishta infects the human body asymptomatically

Dracunculiasis is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • angioedema of the affected tissues;
  • chills;
  • stool disorders;
  • the appearance of severe itching on the epidermis;
  • fever;
  • inflammatory processes in the area of the lymph nodes;
  • vomiting;
  • bouts of nausea;
  • puffiness that appears in the area of the affected joints on the limbs. This swelling is accompanied by severe pain.

After the female reaches the epidermis, an erythematous spot will form on the skin, which subsequently grows to a formation that looks like a boil. An infected person must be sure to check that after the rupture of the boil, the female leaves the body. If this is not done, the female dies under the skin, which leads to:

  • to ankylosis, which consists in immobilizing the joints;
  • to the development of synovitis - an inflammatory process in the joints, which is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in this area;
  • to contracture of the arms and legs;
  • to atrophic processes in the area of muscle fibers.


Treatment of dracunculiasis consists in winding the parasite on a stick a couple of centimeters per day after it comes out. In this case, breaks of the parasitic body should be avoided. If the parasite causes the development of allergic reactions, antihistamines are prescribed. Metronidazole is used at a dosage of 250 milligrams per dose. It is necessary to make 3 doses per day. The course of treatment is 10 days. Children should calculate the dosage: 25 milligrams per 1 kilogram of their body weight. In this case, the daily dose should not exceed the adult dosage. This medication is not able to destroy the worm, but it facilitates the process of its removal from the body.

Some doctors recommend taking drugs that kill the parasite:

  • Ambilgar;
  • Niridazole;
  • Mintezol.

However, these medicines are used extremely rarely due to their high level of toxicity. After contracting dracunculiasis, a person should get a prophylactic tetanus vaccine. In the absence of complications caused by the vital activity of the worm, as well as the addition of secondary infections, the therapeutic prognosis for eliminating such a disease is favorable.

In order to avoid being damaged by the parasite of the rishta, a person needs to refuse to drink raw water, collected from contaminated or unknown sources. It is advisable to thoroughly filter the water before drinking and then boil it. When traveling to exotic hot countries, a person should minimize swimming in wild muddy waters, since it is they that significantly increase the risk of contracting dracunculiasis.