Trypanosome Cruzi: Species, How Is Transmitted

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Trypanosome Cruzi: Species, How Is Transmitted
Trypanosome Cruzi: Species, How Is Transmitted

Video: Trypanosome Cruzi: Species, How Is Transmitted

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Video: Chagas Disease: Life cycle of the parasite (human stages) 2023, February
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Trypanosome is a parasitic microorganism consisting of only one cell. Parasites live in a living organism and cause the development of a serious disease - trypanosomiasis. The most common species are the Cruzi trypanosome and the Brucea trypanosome.

Content

  • 1 Trypanosomes
  • 2 Types of parasites
  • 3 American disease
  • 4 Trypanosomes Cruz
  • 5 African disease
  • 6 Habitat and food
  • 7 Diagnostics
  • 8 How to treat an illness
  • 9 Preventive measures

Trypanosomes

Trypanosomes are microscopic organisms of a parasitic lifestyle. The body of the parasite has a fusiform shape, the sizes vary from 12 to 70 microns. The organism of a trypanosome consists of one cell; it contains mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus.

The forms of trypanosomes can be different, it depends on the stage of their development. Inside the insect there is an epimastigote - a special form of development of the parasite, when it gets inside a person, then an amastigote begins to develop from it, and then a trypomastigote. Trypanosomes cannot exist outside the body of a living organism. Carrying insects spread parasites during the bite process. Having penetrated into the human body, microscopic epimastigotes initially settle in the skin, and then, through the bloodstream, are carried throughout the body.

Trypanosomes cannot develop in human blood. They need to find a suitable place for development and reproduction. This can be cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, or internal organs

Types of parasites

There are different types of trypanosomes, each with its own specific habitat. Some species cause diseases such as African trypanosomiasis, while others cause the American variant of the disease.

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The following species are parasitic in the human body:

  • trypanosome Brucea;
  • trypanosoma gambiense (Gambian);
  • rhodesian;
  • Cruise.

American disease

American trypanosomiasis is a disease caused by triatomaceous bugs. In the place where a person was bitten by an insect, irritation appears, which is accompanied by itching. The disease is most widespread in the countries of South America. It has a different name - Chagas disease, which was assigned in honor of a bacteriologist from Brazil who has been dealing with this disease for a long time.

The initial symptoms are manifested by a febrile condition, head and heart pains, and vomiting. As a complication, the central nervous system is damaged. The disease leads to pathological processes affecting:

  • a heart;
  • brain;
  • esophagus;
  • liver.
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Most often, with this disease, the heart system suffers. In the course of the development of the disease, the degenerative function of the esophagus develops, esophageal atony, dysphagia, vomiting appear, and a person experiences pain when swallowing food. Caused by the ailment of trypanosoma Cruz.

Trypanosomes Cruz

Parasites are single-cell microorganisms. Despite its microscopic size, the parasite is the cause of a complex disease, which in its advanced form can lead to irreversible processes and cause death.

Trypanosomes Cruzi settle inside humans or animals. This parasite can be found in monkeys, possums, armadillos, guinea pigs, dogs, cats. The parasite carrier is the triatomaceous bug. This insect poses a great danger to humans, in most cases its bite leads to death. Reproduction of trypanosomes takes place in the internal tissues and fluids of the final host. These parasites reproduce by longitudinal division, splitting into two parts.

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Trypanosomes Cruzi are transmitted mainly through insect bites, but there are other ways of infection. The disease is transmitted through:

  • eating unwashed foods;
  • with blood transfusion from an infected person;
  • during intrauterine development from mother to fetus;
  • during an organ transplant operation from a sick person.

To avoid contamination, you need to maintain hygiene and take preventive measures. But it should be borne in mind that there is no vaccine for this disease

African disease

African trypanosomiasis, or, as it is also called, sleeping sickness, is a disease characteristic of the African continent. The parasites are carried by tsetse flies. The causative agents of the disease are different types of trypanosomes. Bruceas can inhabit both human and animal bodies. Trypanosome Gambian and Rhodesian parasites in the human body.

African trypanosomiasis occurs in two forms: acute and chronic. At the same time, the acute one has vivid symptoms, this stage is easily diagnosed, but the disease rarely acquires this form. Most often, the disease has been chronic for many years. In this case, the symptoms of the disease have a latent form that is difficult to diagnose.

The chronic variant is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • growth and inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes;
  • hyperthermia;
  • joint pain;
  • increased liver mass;
  • weakening of the body.

In an acute form, serious complications begin to appear, the brain becomes inflamed, the function of all vital organs is disrupted. The disease gradually leads to a coma.

Habitat and food

The parasites feed on substances found in the blood, mainly glycoproteins and carbohydrates. The nutritional process is carried out with the help of the entire cell, since the trypanosome has no suction organs.

Diagnostics

In the chronic form, the parasitic disease progresses slowly, trypanosomiasis can develop over many years. Chronic trypanosomiasis is difficult to diagnose. In order to identify the presence of the disease, you will need to pass tests.

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Research subject:

  • blood;
  • The lymph nodes;
  • cerebrospinal fluid;
  • chancres.

In cases where a more thorough diagnosis is required, they resort to the following procedures:

  • xenodiagnostics;
  • serological research;
  • biological samples, which consist in the administration of the blood of an infected person into the animal's body;
  • immunological tests and reactions.

The earlier the disease was detected, the less harm it will bring to the body.

How to treat an ailment

Trypanosomiasis can be successfully treated only at the initial stage. The launched version cannot be completely cured.

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The main treatment is drug therapy. African trypanosomiasis is treated with the following drugs:

  • Suramin;
  • Pentamidine;
  • Eflornithine.

The American variant is treated with:

  • Nifurmitox;
  • Benznidazole.

These drugs need to be drunk for a long time. The course of treatment lasts at least 60 days.

There is no effective treatment for this type of disease. Therapeutic methods for Chagas disease are not well developed

Prevention measures

People going on vacation to African and South American countries must take a number of preventive measures to avoid infection. There is no vaccine for trypanosomiasis, but the disease is quite common.

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The following rules must be observed:

  • fruits should be thoroughly washed before eating;
  • to avoid insect bites, you should not wear bright, too open clothes, special care must be taken in the dark;
  • lubricate the skin with repellents before going outside;
  • do not walk with bare feet on tall grass, do not touch vegetation with bare skin;
  • protect the home from insects with special insecticidal agents;
  • special attention should be paid to the process of blood transfusion.

By observing basic self-protection measures, you can significantly reduce the risk of infection. The main preventive method is insect control. To avoid being bitten by pests, different protective equipment is used: mosquito nets, traps, insecticides, repellents.

Trypanosomiasis is a common condition. More than 25,000 people are infected with it every year in Africa. Most often, the disease develops in rural areas.

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