Analysis For Echinococcus: How To Take Blood And Decoding

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Analysis For Echinococcus: How To Take Blood And Decoding
Analysis For Echinococcus: How To Take Blood And Decoding
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Echinococcus is one of the most dangerous worms, which, despite its small size, poses a huge danger to human health. The parasite can be in the body for a long time and not manifest itself. To detect parasitic creatures, you will need to be tested for echinococcus.

Content

  • 1 What are echinococci
  • 2 Characteristics of the disease
  • 3 When to be tested for echinococcosis
  • 4 What tests need to be taken
  • 5 Laboratory analyzes
  • 6 Blood test
  • 7 Catsoni reaction
  • 8 What tests are shown after treatment of the disease

What are echinococci

Echinococci are dangerous parasitic worms that belong to the class of tapeworms. Helminths of this species live in the body of people and animals and are the cause of the development of such a serious disease as echinococcosis. The disease is very dangerous, because, while asymptomatic, it carries a risk of death.

The full development cycle of parasites takes place in the body of an animal and a person. An infected animal with feces releases eggs of worms into the environment, which, penetrating into the human body, begin to actively develop. While in a person, the larvae do not turn into adults, but accumulate in special bubbles, which pose a health hazard. These blisters are called cysts.

In this case, the routes of infection are unwashed hands, vegetables and fruits. Parasites enter the human body through the mouth and settle in the liver (75%) and lungs (15%), sometimes reaching the brain (5%). Helminths can penetrate into other organs. In the human body, echinococci begin to actively develop and cause harm to health.

The final owners of echinococci are animals such as foxes, dogs, wolves, jackals. In their body, echinococcus ends its developmental path, growing in length up to 5 meters. Parasite larvae can be present in the coat of dogs, especially stray dogs.

Characteristics of the disease

Echinococcosis is a rare disease. It is caused by parasites - echinococcus, which are of two types.

  1. Hydatidous, causing liver problems.
  2. Alveolar echinococcosis most often settles in the lungs.

Parasites in the human body are present in the form of a unicameral or multi-chambered bladder, which is called an echinococcal cyst. Embryos live inside the bubble, which gradually grows. Having increased in size, they begin to squeeze nearby tissues and disrupt their functionality.

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Cysts are fixed in some internal organ. From this moment, their movement stops, they begin to feed on the human body.

The disease progresses gradually, its symptoms depend on the location of the cysts and their size. If the bubble with the embryos bursts, general intoxication of the body occurs.

When to get tested for echinococcosis

People of certain professions whose activities are related to animals, especially dogs and cattle, should be regularly examined.

You will also need to be examined in the following cases:

  • upon detection of a sharp deterioration in health;
  • as a result of damage to internal organs;
  • tumor of the lungs and liver;
  • allergic manifestations of uncertain etiology.
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The tests will have to be taken again, since after the first examination it is possible not to identify the parasite in the body.

Some diseases can distort the test results:

  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • tuberculosis;
  • oncological diseases.

Examination for echinococcosis involves visiting the following specialists: therapist, pulmonologist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist, allergist, dermatologist, parasitologist.

What tests need to be taken

To determine helminths and confirm echinococcus, it is necessary to pass tests. Often the diagnostic procedure is complicated by the fact that echinococci are masked in the body. They can be difficult to identify, especially if the infected person has no symptoms.

Nevertheless, in medicine, there are methods for examining the body for the presence of a parasite of this type. These include:

  • Ultrasound;
  • MRI;
  • CT;
  • radiography;
  • blood for echinococcosis.

In special cases, additional diagnostic procedures may be required. An x-ray will need to be taken to confirm the presence of parasite clusters in the lungs. Computed tomography is one of the most modern radiological methods. It allows you to identify pathological processes occurring in the internal tissues. If the parasites have settled in the brain, then it is necessary to examine the cerebrospinal fluid.

Laparoscopy is used as an additional method. During the procedure, an endoscope is inserted into the abdominal cavity, with the help of which a thorough examination of the abdominal organs is performed.

Lab tests

Laboratory analyzes are performed with two purposes:

  • confirmation of the diagnosis;
  • identification of the degree of damage to the internal organ.
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The first group includes analyzes that are carried out mainly in biochemical laboratories. For this purpose, tests are used for the presence of cysts or specific proteins in the blood, which are called antigens. This includes tests for the complement binding response and the indirect hemagglutination response.

The second group consists of tests that reveal how much the internal organs are affected by parasites.

Blood test

To confirm the presence of helminths, they are tested for echinococcus, the main of which is a blood test for ELISA. Antibodies to this type of parasite are found in the blood. This procedure is indicated in cases where the lesions are localized in the brain, lungs or liver. With this diagnostic method, you can determine the onset of the development of the disease at an early stage.

A blood test that detects antibodies to parasites is called an ELISA. It is carried out in an immunological laboratory at any time of the day. No special preparation is required for its implementation - it is enough not to smoke before taking a blood test and not to take strong medications an hour before the procedure.

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Blood sampling is done from the cubital vein; analysis will require 3 to 5 ml. An initial blood test may not show the presence of helminths, since the incubation period is delayed up to two months, so it is recommended to donate blood again after a month.

The immune response to echinococcus with liver damage will be more pronounced - it is manifested in 90% of patients. If the lungs are affected, then the immune response is manifested only in 60% of those affected.

ESR indicators are also important. Inflammatory processes are accompanied by an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Katsoni reaction

In modern clinics, if echinococcosis is suspected, an analysis of the Katzoni reaction is performed. It gives reliable results 90% of the time.

What tests are shown after treatment of the disease

Echinococcosis is treated mainly by surgery, after which a doctor needs to be observed for some time. A person who has undergone surgery to remove echinococcal cysts must undergo a preventive examination within two years to avoid a relapse of the disease. But even after this period, some tests should be taken from time to time.

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For preventive purposes, a person will have to pass:

  • a blood test for the determination of antibodies;
  • blood chemistry;
  • general blood analysis;
  • general urine analysis;
  • liver function tests.

Depending on the location and severity of the disease, the doctor may prescribe additional tests and diagnostic procedures.

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