Pediculosis: What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment Of The Disease

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Pediculosis: What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment Of The Disease
Pediculosis: What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment Of The Disease

Video: Pediculosis: What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment Of The Disease

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Video: HEAD LICE, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. 2023, February

Pediculosis is a parasitic disease of the skin and hair. The causative agents are lice. With a high speed, the disease spreads in a narrow group, so you need to know the main signs of head lice.


  • 1 Types and features of parasites
  • 2 Ways of infection
  • 3 Manifestations of the disease
  • 4 Therapeutic actions
  • 5 Preventive measures

Types and features of parasites

Pediculosis, what is it? This is a disease caused by head lice. They settle on the part of the person where there is hair. They feed on blood. Lice are small parasitic insects that have tenacious legs with claws, a proboscis for collecting blood, and they have no wings.

The lice are light brown in color, with the help of their paws they quickly move along the surface. After the louse has drunk blood, it changes color to black or burgundy red.

Eggs (nits), which are laid by parasites, are oval, yellow-white in color, no more than 1 millimeter in size. A week later, new individuals appear from them. The eggs are covered with a sticky substance, so they stick tightly to the hair.

The head louse lives on the scalp. This type of parasite has a size of no more than 1.5 mm. Individual

The insect has an elongated dark body, black dots on the abdomen. The female's life span is about a month. During this time, she is able to lay up to 100 eggs, 3-4 pieces per day. An adult is able to lay eggs already 2.5 weeks after emergence. How long does a head louse live? Life expectancy is up to 1.5 months.


What is pubic lice? Pubic lice can occur in the groin or axillary region, in advanced forms it is found on the eyebrows or eyelashes. Its dimensions are larger than the head - about 3 mm. They have a shortened dark abdomen. On the tarsi, the claws are larger than in other species, which makes it possible to attach to the hairs no more than 3-4 mm. Females can lay up to 50 nits. An adult lives up to three weeks.

On clothes, you can find a body louse. It has an elongated yellowish abdomen, about 2–4 mm in size. Shows high resistance to cold and hunger. Dies only during heat treatment. Bites from this type of insect cause itching and discomfort. The place becomes inflamed, reddens and a blister forms. The life cycle is up to a month. It can lay up to 16 eggs per day.

Infection routes

What can cause head lice? In most cases, you can get infected by contact-household method. Often in the infection of head lice, the reasons are associated with close communication with a sick person (hug, play), the use of other people's personal hygiene items (hat, comb, hairpin). Children are at risk, but an adult is not immune from head lice. The occurrence of an infestation may be associated, for example, with a trip in public transport.


How is body louse spread? It can be transmitted through items of clothing, bedding. The risk of infection increases for those who visit public baths, swimming pools: a louse can live in water for up to two days.

Head lice has a short incubation period. After the louse gets to the new owner, it moves to its favorite place. Depending on whether a nit or an adult has got on the body, the speed of propagation will depend. The adult begins to lay eggs immediately.

Disease manifestations

How to identify the problem? In head lice, the symptoms are as follows:

  • itching of the skin. It is caused by the ingestion of saliva from parasites in bite wounds. The symptom that arises as the disease spreads intensifies, abrasions appear that hurt and burn;
  • in good lighting, you can find nits on the hair;
  • with a protracted course of head lice, pigmentation may form;
  • red dots appear on the skin, spots that over time can turn into blisters;
  • a person becomes irritable, tormented by insomnia, depression, weakness appears.

What is the danger of head lice? The danger is caused by head and body lice. Transmitted lice becomes the source of various infections, for example, typhus or relapsing fever.

Typhus has the following symptoms:

  • for a long time, body temperature reaches high levels (up to 40 degrees);
  • chills in the body;
  • headache;
  • the appearance of a rash, most often on the abdomen;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • disturbances in the work of the heart.

Relapsing fever can be recognized by the following:

  • temperature rise up to 40 degrees;
  • headache;
  • nausea, vomiting, stool disorder;
  • hallucinations;
  • rash all over the body;
  • damage to internal organs.

Diagnosis of head lice is not difficult. The symptoms are all obvious and visible to the naked eye. You can check for head lice with a dermatologist. The doctor will tell you how to treat the disease. To detect head lice, an examination is sufficient, on the basis of which a treatment regimen is prescribed.


At home, you can start identifying head lice yourself. To do this, the hair should be wet and run with the comb in different directions. After each combing, you need to check the teeth of the comb and the hair roots.

Complications of head lice can occur with a severe form of its course. But problems arise extremely rarely, in the absence of therapy. These include severe skin conditions such as dermatitis or boils. The risk of bacterial infection increases.

The consequences of complicated head lice lead to general purulent inflammation of the skin. Lice over time flows into impetigo, staphylococcal abscesses appear.

Therapeutic actions

If head lice is found, what to do ? Compliance with hygiene and the use of special shampoos allows you to quickly deal with the problem. All methods of treatment should be used according to the doctor's prescription and according to the attached instructions.

How to get rid of the disease? From long hair, nits must be constantly combed out. In the fight against head lice, the clothes are helped by boiling the clothes. It is imperative to iron clothes with an iron on both sides, special attention should be paid to the seams, folds on the clothes.

How to deal with the disease? For head lice treatment, doctors may prescribe the following effective drugs:

  1. You can treat it with permethrin-based means ("Medifox", "Nittifor", "Permethrin"). The products are available in the form of shampoos and lotions. The active substance leads to paralysis of parasites. Cannot be used for purulent skin lesions. The product is rubbed into the scalp and hair for about 35 minutes and then washed off. Reapplication in case of ineffectiveness is allowed after a week.
  2. Malathion ("Malathion", "Pedilin", "Novaktion"). Available as an emulsion and shampoo. It leads not only to paralysis of the nervous system, but also affects the metabolic processes inside the body of parasites. The drug treats an advanced disease. Apply the product for only 5 minutes.
  1. Shampoo "RID" negatively affects the nervous and enzyme systems of parasites, which becomes the reason for their death. The product is left on the hair for 10-15 minutes and then washed off. After 7 days, be sure to repeat the procedure.
  2. Aerosol "Para-plus". The drug should not be used in the treatment of children under 3 years of age. It is enough to leave the product on the hair for 10 minutes.
  3. Sumitrin ("Pyrethrin", "Anti-Bit"). The shampoo is left on the head for 3 minutes and washed off. It is recommended to repeat the procedure after two days.
  4. Shampoo "Fenotrin" is approved for use from any age, but it is active only in relation to adults: nits do not die.
  5. Shampoo "Paranit" helps to cure head lice. The agent blocks the breathing of parasites. In addition to the harmful effect on lice, it heals wounds, dries the surface, and improves the condition of the hair. Keep on the head for about 20 minutes.
  6. Treatment of head lice in adults is sometimes accompanied by taking Butadion tablets. The medicine, along with the blood, enters the body of the lice, and they die. Take 0.15 g 3 times a day for two days.

All head lice medications should not be used during pregnancy.

There are other control measures on how to get rid of head lice:

  • combs and elastic bands are allowed to be treated with the same means as hair;
  • so that the detected species of lice does not spread to other family members, you need to wear a headdress;
  • daily washing and combing hair;
  • bed linen is recommended to be changed every time before going to bed;
  • every day, a head and whole body should be checked for all family members;
  • measures to combat head lice include wet cleaning using disinfectants (a weak vinegar solution can be added to the water).
  • if clothes or toys cannot be washed, then they can be covered with a bag for about 10-15 minutes: the lice will die themselves;
  • throw rugs, carpets, pillows, mattresses outside. The parasites will die under the influence of frost or direct sunlight.

There is also a radical way to get rid of lice. To do this, it is enough to shave the hair from the affected part. In this case, it will be possible to get rid of the problem in one day. If lice are found on the head, then this method is suitable for young children or men.

Preventive actions

To prevent the treated head lice from returning, you need to take precautions:

  • strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene: take a shower every day, comb your hair several times a day, change clothes regularly, iron thoroughly after washing, do not use other people's hygiene products;
  • preventive examinations (especially in large, close teams);
  • essential oils such as tea tree oil or lavender oil, which are applied behind the ear, are effective in prevention;
  • braid long hair.

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