Teniosis: Symptoms And Treatment, Choice Of Drugs, Diagnosis And Methods Of Infection

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Teniosis: Symptoms And Treatment, Choice Of Drugs, Diagnosis And Methods Of Infection
Teniosis: Symptoms And Treatment, Choice Of Drugs, Diagnosis And Methods Of Infection

Video: Teniosis: Symptoms And Treatment, Choice Of Drugs, Diagnosis And Methods Of Infection

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Video: Diagnostics in Infectious Diseases - Garo Akoghlanian, MD 2023, February
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Teniosis is a disease that is triggered by the vital activity of parasites in the small intestine. The first manifestation of the disease is associated with digestive disorders, as well as astheno-neurotic phenomena. Before starting the treatment of teniasis, the doctor needs to obtain as much information as possible about the symptoms of the disease. This is necessary so that the specialist does not confuse the presence of parasites with ordinary poisoning.

Content

  • 1 What is teniasis?
  • 2 Causative agent of the disease
  • 3 Locations
  • 4 Methods of infection
  • 5 Symptoms of invasion
  • 6 Diagnostic methods
  • 7 Which doctor should I go to?
  • 8 How to treat teniasis?

    • 8.1 Medicines
    • 8.2 Folk remedies
    • 8.3 Diet with teniasis
  • 9 Complications
  • 10 Prognosis of recovery
  • 11 Preventive measures

What is teniasis?

Teniosis refers to intestinal parasitic diseases from the cestodosis group. The pathology is provoked by a tapeworm armed with a tapeworm or a pork worm. There are several known countries where the disease is widespread. We are talking about such states as Korea, India, Philippines, Laos, North China. But these are far from all countries in which people suffer from this disease.

All people in the city who have developed pig breeding are at risk. This includes all countries of the former Soviet Union. On the territory of one state, up to 30% of all animals can be infected

Causative agent of the disease

The causative agent of the pathology is a white tapeworm. It shares many external characteristics with a regular chain. You can distinguish the worm by the features of the body structure. When the parasite reaches its maximum size, it will be 7 meters long and 6 millimeters wide.

The body of an adult is divided into three parts. This is strobila, scolex and neck. The scolex is the head of a worm. It is located at its front end. This part is a holding device with four suction cups, a spout and hooks needed to suck.

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The neck is an area of ​​a certain length between the strobila and the scolex. The length of this section can reach 2-3 meters in length if it is an adult worm. There are up to 1000 segments here, which are called proglottids.

They are essential for the absorption of nutrients from food consumed by humans. Each parasite is capable of multiplying independently and laying up to 40,000 eggs. As the tapeworm grows, the mature individual will eventually be excreted from the body along with the eggs laid. They contain an oncosphere and are approximately 35 micrometers in size.

Localization locations

The shape of a tenioz is always determined by where exactly the tapeworm is. At the moment, there are four most common localization locations:

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  • brain;
  • a heart;
  • eyes;
  • lungs.

In most cases, patients suffer from the fact that the parasite is localized in the brain. When this happens, the patient suffers from hydrocephalus and cerebral hypertension. In addition to severe migraines or dizziness, a person also complains of a sensory disorder.

If the parasite enters the eye, it can also cause dysfunction. As a result, it will lead to eyeball atrophy, blindness, or retinal detachment. Eye damage is diagnosed in about 33% of all patients who seek help. With dynamic development, it is almost impossible to prevent the consequences.

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If the parasite is in the lungs, it can be difficult to detect. This is only possible after undergoing fluoroscopy. When pathology affects the heart, a person suffers from rhythmic disturbances. Another organ that can be infected is the skin. In this case, the patient will suffer from visible tumors in those places where the tapeworm larvae are located.

Infection methods

Infection with pathology is possible when eating pork, as well as boar meat after insufficient heat treatment. In this case, the meat must be contaminated. If it passes sanitary control, but during the cooking process, a person who does not use gloves, did not wash his hands, and before that was holding an infected carcass in his hands, he can transfer the larvae to another piece of meat.

If the pork is bought at the bazaar, it is desirable that it undergoes a long heat treatment. If a person is a carrier of the parasite, he poses a danger to all other people nearby.

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Note! A pathological reaction in intestinal teniasis is caused by trauma to the thin walls of the intestine with hooks or suckers of the parasite. When the worm begins to absorb nutrients, this will prevent the body from getting enough of them.

When the helminth begins to secrete decay products, this is reflected in a person by allergic reactions of a toxic type. Inside the patient, the worm can parasitize for more than a dozen years.

Invasion symptoms

Teniosis is dangerous because it can proceed without any obvious symptoms. At the same time, some people complained about the deterioration of the condition already in the early stages of the development of the parasite. An obvious clinical picture may look like this:

  1. In the peripheral blood, characteristic eosinophilia, iron deficiency anemia are noted.
  2. Speaking about the development of dyspeptic syndrome, the first manifestation is possible only in the seventh week after the patient is infected. He develops a constant feeling of nausea, vomiting and constipation with a simultaneous loss of body weight. You can also note abdominal pains of a cramping or aching nature.
  3. Anal itching is another characteristic manifestation of infection. If this is an asthenic-neurotic syndrome, a person complains of irritability, inability to sleep, headaches and fainting.
  4. The most dangerous symptom is vomiting. This is explained by the fact that at any moment the larvae of the parasite are able to move into the stomach. Further, they will gain the ability to spread throughout the body and settle in muscle tissues or nearby organs.

Diagnostic methods

In order for the doctor to suspect teniasis, it is necessary to carefully collect an anamnesis and pay attention to the most insignificant patient complaints. Final conclusions can only be drawn after laboratory research. To do this, the patient must pass a feces analysis and an imprint of the anal ring. With the help of these studies, it is possible to detect the eggs of the worm, but this will not yet indicate that the patient suffers from teniasis.

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The same disease can provoke another helminth, namely the bovine tapeworm. You can distinguish one parasite from another by detecting segments of the worm in the feces. If it is a pork tapeworm, it has at least 10 uterine holes. The bovine tapeworm has twice as many of them, which is clearly visible under microscopy. To accurately diagnose the pathology, the patient often has to be tested multiple times, since the number of eggs can range from a few pieces to several thousand.

If the segments come out along with the feces, it is necessary to tell the doctor about this, they can come out in a chain of 6-7 pieces or one by one. The main thing is that they can be seen with the naked eye. If it is a pork tapeworm, they will remain motionless. If we talk about the bovine chain, the segments will actively move, which will also allow you to accurately identify the pathogen. Another method of accurate diagnosis is an immunological method based on test systems using the effect of the pork tapeworm antigen on the patient's blood and feces.

Electropharesis is another way to recognize a pathogen. It helps to detect antibodies to the stimulus. But it should be borne in mind that with each of these studies, sometimes there is an intersection of reactions with antigens of other parasites, which at times interferes with an accurate diagnosis. If teniasis is complicated by cysticercosis, it will be difficult to accurately diagnose.

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If it is necessary to identify the larva in the brain, it is necessary to conduct a computed tomography. In the eyeballs, the worm is looked for using ophthalmoscopy, but this technique will only allow making the first assumption. A biopsy will provide very detailed information. But here some difficulties are noted with which parts of the organs can be used to take the analysis.

Which doctor should I go to?

After the patient first noticed signs of teniasis, he should make an appointment with a parasitologist

When certain laboratory examinations are carried out, the specialist will identify the helminth and conduct etiotropic and supportive therapy.

How is teniasis treated?

The most effective result can be obtained if the patient is treated comprehensively, using traditional and traditional medicine. But it is not worth making a decision on specific methods of treatment on your own. Each of the drugs is prescribed only by a doctor. If a person at the same time wants to use any herbs for preparing tinctures, this issue should also be resolved with a specialist.

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Medication

For the treatment of teniasis, doctors most often use four drugs, namely:

  1. Praziquantel.
  2. Biltricide.
  3. Albendazole.
  4. Vermox.

Each of the drugs is active against adult helminths, as well as their larvae and eggs. The doctor determines which medicine will be used on an individual basis. Self-medication is prohibited, since when choosing a drug without taking into account the characteristics of the patient's body, he may suffer from side effects.

Biltricide

The manufacturer of this and the drug is Germany. In pharmacies in Russia or in online stores, it can be purchased for about 450-500 rubles. The drug is released in the form of tablets. 1 piece contains up to 600 milligrams of the active ingredient. In addition to teniasis, the remedy is used to treat diseases such as:

  • paragonimiasis;
  • neurocysticercosis;
  • neurocysticercosis;
  • fascioliasis;
  • intestinal schistosomiasis.

Biltricide is prohibited for use by pregnant women. Also among the contraindications include cysticercosis of the eyes. If you do not take into account the rules of admission, a person may suffer from side effects. The most common of these are arrhythmias, headaches, drowsiness, and fever.

Vermox

Vermox is also available in pill form, but it is much cheaper than Biltricide. One package will cost a person about 100 rubles. At the same time, Vermox belongs to broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs. Before taking a person, you need to read the instructions for use, since the medicine has a number of contraindications, namely:

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  1. Crohn's disease.
  2. Susceptibility to the active ingredient.
  3. Nonspecific ulcerative colitis.
  4. The period of bearing a child and breastfeeding.
  5. Liver failure.

Vermox cannot be used to treat children under 2 years of age. Since there has not been full research in relation to such patients, complications can be very different. If the patient does not take into account the rules of admission, as a result of an overdose, he may experience headaches, nausea, diarrhea or hives.

Praziquantel

Praziquantel is used to treat pathologies caused by flatworms. Before using this remedy, the patient is asked to undergo an examination to determine whether his body is susceptible to the active substance of the drug.

Like all other drugs in this group, Praziquantel should not be used if the woman is breastfeeding or in position. At the time of treatment, doctors advise patients to give up work if people nearby may suffer from the patient's carelessness.

Albendazole

Albendazole is also an inexpensive but effective drug. It is not as popular as Praziquantel due to the fact that it is capable of provoking a sufficiently large number of side effects. Among the most common are the following:

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  • impaired renal function;
  • leukopenia;
  • stomach ache;
  • hives;
  • dizziness;
  • itchy skin;
  • hypertension;
  • dyspepsia;
  • dizziness;
  • pancytopenia;
  • agranulocytosis.

Folk remedies

Pumpkin seeds are considered one of the effective folk remedies. To do this, they do not have to undergo heat treatment. If they are fried in a pan, you can not count on the healing properties.

To prepare a folk remedy, it is worth peeling the seeds from the white peel, kneading them in a mortar and pouring a little water and a spoonful of honey. The remedy has no contraindications, so it can be used to treat young children. The mixture is consumed on an empty stomach in small dosages for 60 minutes.

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Diet with teniasis

If a person suffers from teniasis, during this period he is advised to consume the following foods:

  • fish and lean meat;
  • vegetable soups;
  • lactic acid products;
  • beets and carrots;
  • berries and ripe fruits;
  • honey and jam;
  • potatoes.

Complications

Cysticercosis is considered one of the most serious complications. In this case, the treatment will be complicated by the presence of parasites in the muscles, spinal cord, subcutaneous tissue and eyeballs. The presence of such a disease may indicate mental disorders and persistent headaches.

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Recovery prognosis

If the patient goes to the hospital on time and the doctors have identified the causative agent of the pathology, the prognosis is always positive.

Prevention measures

For prevention, it is enough for a person not to purchase pork in questionable places and where sellers do not adhere to sanitary standards. The purchased meat must be sufficiently processed. Also, do not forget about personal hygiene products, which will allow you to protect yourself if there is already an infected person in the family.

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