Koch's Wand: What Is, Symptoms And Prevention

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Koch's Wand: What Is, Symptoms And Prevention
Koch's Wand: What Is, Symptoms And Prevention

Video: Koch's Wand: What Is, Symptoms And Prevention

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: MEDICINE: ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS 2023, February
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Not everyone knows what Koch's bacillus is, but many have come across the concept of tuberculosis. There is an inextricable connection between these two concepts, because microbacteria is the causative agent of a terrible disease.

Content

  • 1 What is this stick
  • 2 Life span

    2.1 Demonstration of microorganism resistance

  • 3 ways of transmission
  • 4 Symptoms

    • 4.1 Pulmonary tuberculosis
    • 4.2 Renal form
    • 4.3 Cutaneous tuberculosis
  • 5 What you need to know about preventive measures

What is this stick

The microorganism has a slightly curved or straight shape when viewed through a microscope. The parasite can penetrate into the body of an animal or human with food or through skin contact with a carrier.

However, the main route of transmission of bacteria is airborne.

The greatest risk of getting sick can occur when the bacillus is spread indoors, if there is a carrier there. Getting into the human body, microbacteria do not tend to emit toxic substances, because of this feature, the immune system does not immediately notice the presence of a hostile foreign body.

In some cases, the immune system kills the carrier of the disease on its own, but there is no guarantee that all the bacilli will die. Some cells can exist inside a person for more than one decade, and only after a long time interval, begin to act.

Life span

The microorganism has a powerful wall, consisting of three layers, which can harm cellular toxins and the membrane of macrophages. It is these cells that are the first to begin to fight the harmful carrier.

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The manifestation of the resistance of the microorganism

Let's take a closer look at what Koch's bacillus is resistant to, as a causative agent of tuberculosis, and how long it lives in certain conditions:

  • microorganisms are afraid of boiling water: the bacillus dies after 15 minutes;
  • low temperatures are not an obstacle for the stick: it is impractical to fight with their help;
  • after about 3 years, the microbacterium may die if it has been dried;
  • can live more than 14 years in animal excrement;
  • sewage is a less favorable environment: she lives here for about a year;
  • dairy products of sick animals for 19 days contain a dangerous pathogen - for 300 days it is in oil;
  • about a year in frozen meat products.
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The most common disease on our planet is tuberculosis. And Koch's wand is the first reason that causes this ailment, which both people and animals suffer from. Most often, the parasite causes damage to the internal respiratory organs - the lungs, much less often the disease develops elsewhere in the human or animal body.

Transmission routes

There are several of the most common ways to transfer the stick:

  1. Infection occurs by airborne droplets when a microorganism enters the air. It is released when the wearer coughs or sneezes.
  2. Alimentary way: with the participation of the gastrointestinal tract.
  3. Contact is a very rare way of spreading the disease through the skin.
  4. The fetus can become infected with tuberculosis if the placenta is affected. This happens during the birthing process.

A healthy body is able to protect itself from the penetration of microorganisms. The respiratory organs have mucus, produced with the participation of special cells, which resists microbes. In the presence of an inflammatory process or toxic effects, this system stops working.

The alimentary route of infection is directly related to the condition of the intestinal walls and their ability to absorb. Due to the fact that tubercle bacilli live outside the cells, and their reproduction is a slow process, the infected organism will still be healthy for some time. But after a certain period of time, they will reach the nodes through the lymphatic channels, from where they will begin to spread throughout the body.

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Symptoms

In most cases, tuberculosis caused by Koch's bacillus is asymptomatic and is diagnosed during a visit to the doctor.

Pulmonary tuberculosis

The initial stage is characterized by the following features:

  • the person gets tired quickly;
  • decreased appetite;
  • body weight decreases;
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  • presence of cough (sputum or blood may be released);
  • increased sweating.

Renal form

The disease has the following symptoms:

  • signs of body intoxication;
  • the presence of a fever;
  • lower back pain;
  • colic in the kidneys.

Cutaneous tuberculosis

With this disease, in most cases, the diagnosis is made too late: when the parasite has lived in the body for a long time.

The disease is characterized by the duration and difficulty of treatment. The cutaneous form has a number of pronounced features. First of all, the skin on the nose, face, neck area is affected. Much less often, the disease spreads to the limbs.

What you need to know about preventive measures

Let us consider in detail what the Koch's wand is afraid of from the protection and prevention measures that are the same for all segments of the population.

Namely:

  • improving the performance of the immune system;
  • vaccinations;
  • taking every year a tuberculin test in children;
  • once a year, the passage of fluorography or x-rays by adults;
  • avoid getting into a stressful situation, which is one of the reasons for weakening the immune system;
  • correct diet. It must contain vitamins and minerals in the required amount;
  • sports and physical education.

These measures do not allow the stick to live. If there are chronic diseases, then you will have to take care of your health doubly. After all, the presence of diabetes mellitus and some other ailments greatly facilitate the task of getting harmful microbacteria into the human body.

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Another preventive measure is BCG vaccines, aimed at protecting a person from the most severe form of the disease, which is called tuberculous meningitis. The first vaccination is given at the hospital in the first week of a child's life. Re-vaccinate at 7 and 14 years of age, if there is a gram-negative Mantoux reaction, and there are no contraindications.

There are some aspects in which vaccinations are not given:

  • the presence of an immunodeficiency in a born child and in cases where there are people with this disease in the family;
  • blood relatives had complications following vaccination;
  • there is a congenital pathology of the central nervous system.

Prescriptions for postponing vaccination - prematurity of the child, the presence of any infectious disease and various Rh factor of the mother with the child

Hang items made of wool or cotton in the sun. And also avoid large amounts of fatty foods.

For any indicated symptoms and suspicions, consultation with a phthisiatrician is necessary! And in no case should you prescribe yourself any medication or folk remedy, only the doctor will be able to choose a course of treatment and all the necessary drugs.

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