Table of contents:
- General information
- Sampling technique for PCR analysis
- Research process
- Preparation rules
- Interpreting Results
Video: PCR For Chlamydia: Smear, Analysis, How To Take And Decoding
Urogenital chlamydia refers to infections of bacterial origin, the transmission mechanism of which is considered to be sexual. PCR analysis for chlamydia reveals their presence in the human body. It should be noted that chlamydiae belong to the group of common infectious agents in humans.
- 1 General
- 2 Technique of sampling for PCR analysis
- 3 Research process
- 4 Preparation rules
- 5 Interpretation of results
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that poses a significant threat to human health. The cause of chlamydia is considered intracellular microorganisms - chlamydia.
In our time, among men and women, the genital form of the disease is most often detected. Chlamydiae have the ability to damage the epithelium of the genital organs, which leads to the formation of complications in the form of diseases of the genitourinary system.
Quite often, the infectious process leads to the appearance of:
- inflammation of the urethra;
- pathological processes during carrying a child.
If the causative agent of the disease attacks men, then they may develop:
- atrophy of the prostate;
Chlamydia treatment should be carried out only by traditional methods with the use of antibacterial drugs, otherwise the effect will not be observed.
As for the detection of the disease in men and women, it is carried out:
- cultural method - biological material is taken for nutrient media;
- molecular biological technique - PCR;
- taking smears for cytological examination;
- serological test or ELISA - this method makes it possible to determine the presence of antibodies to the causative agent of the disease in human serum.
Now we will consider the PCR diagnostic method in more detail.
Sampling technique for PCR analysis
Diagnosis of chlamydia is not an easy task, because the presence of the pathogen cannot be detected during a routine examination or during a smear test for microflora.
In women, a smear on chlamydia by PCR is taken from the vagina using specially designed plastic probes. After taking the material, they are placed in a test tube containing a transport medium (pink mucolytic). This tube is sterile and may only be used once.
In men, scraping is performed from the urogenital canal. The head of the penis is wiped with saline, the urethra is massaged and the probe is inserted into the urethra by 1–2 cm. After that, it is placed in a sterile test tube, which is tightly closed.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method belongs to a group of diagnostic methods that are distinguished by their speed and high level of reliability.
The analysis for chlamydia by PCR is considered extremely sensitive compared to other diagnostic methods, for example, with an immunofluorescence blood test (ELISA), the results of which are often underestimated due to the subjectivity of the evaluation of the results and the insufficient level of antigen sensitivity. An important point is that the interpretation of the results should only be carried out by a qualified specialist.
The research process consists of:
- denaturation - at a temperature of 94 degrees, the double strand of DNA is replaced, which is transformed into a single strand;
- polymerization - this stage is characterized by the synthesis of new DNA strands.
Please note that the results obtained must necessarily be compared with the general condition of the person, therefore, only a doctor can carry out the correct assessment of the result.
Before taking a PCR smear for chlamydia, you need to familiarize yourself with some rules and recommendations. Their implementation will allow you to get the correct result.
Important! Sampling is not carried out in women during the menstrual cycle. This is explained by the fact that the presence of blood secretions on the mucous membrane interferes with the sampling of material.
Since specially designed test systems are used to carry out PCR diagnostics of chlamydia, a smear should only be taken if certain conditions are met:
- the person under study should refrain from urinating for three hours before the sampling of the material;
- within three days before the upcoming examination, you must exclude alcohol from your diet, refrain from sexual intercourse, do not douche, do not use vaginal suppositories and ointments;
- for two weeks prior to the date of examination, the person under study should not take any antibacterial drugs.
Diagnosis of chlamydia is considered a rather important point, because only the delivery of the analysis makes it possible to carry out timely adequate treatment.
As already noted, only a qualified doctor should decipher the results of the study. The result could be:
- negative - indicates the absence of traces of infection (the causative agent of chlamydia) in the test material;
- positive - confirmation that the test material contains traces of chlamydial infection.
It must be remembered that the polymerase chain reaction makes it possible to see a qualitative result, not a quantitative one. In some pathological processes, the presence of bacteria is not considered evidence of the presence of a disease.
Summing up, I would like to focus on the fact that when a disease is detected, you do not need to panic and despair - chlamydia is successfully treated, the main thing is to detect the pathology in time and seek help from a doctor.
To eliminate the risk of infection, you need to be attentive to yourself and your health, to undergo regular preventive examinations that will help determine the presence of pathological processes in the body.