The Rate Of Ureaplasma In The Analyzes: What Should Be, Decoding

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The Rate Of Ureaplasma In The Analyzes: What Should Be, Decoding
The Rate Of Ureaplasma In The Analyzes: What Should Be, Decoding
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Ureaplasmas are often representatives of the normal microflora of the organs of the genitourinary system, but, depending on the number of these microorganisms and the immune status of the body, they can provoke urogenital diseases. The presence of ureaplasmas in the analyzes serves as a signal for a more detailed diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribing treatment.

Content

  • 1 Bacteriological culture method
  • 2 Disadvantages of the method
  • 3 Polymerase chain reaction

    3.1 Disadvantages of the method

  • 4 Serological examination

    4.1 Disadvantages of the method

  • 5 Microscopic examination
  • 6 Conclusion

Analysis for ureaplasmosis is carried out using several methods that are selected by the attending physician individually for each patient.

Bacteriological culture method

Bacteriological culture is one of the most accurate tests for detecting ureaplasma. The method is used for:

  • establishing the cause of inflammatory processes affecting the organs of the urinary or reproductive system;
  • quantitative determination of ureaplasmas in biomaterial;
  • selection of the most effective antibiotics for treatment;
  • establishing the genus of bacteria that caused the infection (mycoplasma, gonococcus, chlamydia);
  • preventive examinations.

Cultivation of bacteria occurs within 2–3 days, after which the number of pathogenic bacteria is determined. The use of a bacteriological method is also necessary to obtain an antibioticogram, which allows you to accurately establish the sensitivity of ureaplasmas to various antibiotics and select the most effective drug for treatment. The setting of an antibioticogram takes about a week. On the basis of the ureaplasma titer and antibiogram, the attending physician develops a subsequent treatment strategy. The culture tank result may be affected by a recent course of antibiotic therapy.

The rate of the seeding tank for ureaplasma is the lack of growth on selective nutrient media. In the absence of an infectious process caused by ureaplasmas, the result of bacteriological culture will be negative.

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A positive culture result, together with clinical signs of inflammatory diseases affecting the genitourinary system, and the absence of other pathogenic bacteria, including mycoplasmas, chlamydia, gonococci, indicates that ureaplasma infection caused the disease. If, during sowing, a small amount of ureaplasma was detected in the material, but there are no symptoms of diseases, then they speak of carriage.

Disadvantages of the method

The principle of the method is based on the fact that when bacteria grow in a nutrient medium, they break down urea, changing the pH of the medium. The acidity of the medium is checked using an indicator, the color of which changes with its decrease. But different ureaplasmas have different ability to break down urea, which greatly complicates the determination of the number of bacteria by the degree of color change of the indicator. Other pathogenic bacteria also have the ability to break down urea.

The selection of an effective antibiotic using bacterial sowing is complicated by the different sensitivity of ureaplasmas to the effect of the drug in the laboratory (in a test tube) and in the body, which is due to a number of factors (acidity of the environment, bioavailability, different content of the antibiotic in the organs).

Polymerase chain reaction

Method:

  • is used to quickly detect ureaplasmas in a sample of genetic material (this express method takes about 4-6 hours);
  • is one of the most sensitive and accurate methods for diagnosing ureaplasmas, which makes it possible to establish even a small amount of pathogens in the biomaterial;
  • It is used for the specific identification of the pathogen (ureaplasma urealiticum or ureaplasma parvum).

The study is prescribed for clinical signs of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system and suspicion of ureaplasmosis, infertility, complicated pregnancy.

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Positive PCR results may indicate that the causative agents of inflammatory diseases are ureaplasmas, but in order to make a final decision on the treatment strategy, it is recommended to check for the presence of other pathogens in the body, for example, gonococci, chlamydia, mycoplasma, which can also cause inflammation. If the result is positive, subsequent diagnostics should be carried out, since this method does not allow to establish the number and physiological activity of ureaplasmas.

Detection of the genetic material of ureaplasma parvum and the absence of clinical signs of inflammatory diseases of the excretory or reproductive system, as a rule, are regarded as a carrier.

Disadvantages of the method

False positive or false negative results are possible. The first happens due to contamination of the test sample with foreign DNA, and the second - when the patient underwent antibiotic therapy a month before the test or due to the interaction of reagents used for PCR with components of the biomaterial, for example, with heparin, hemoglobin.

The absence of genetic material in a sample (for example, in secretions) may be due to the localization of the inflammatory process in the ovaries, prostate gland and other internal parts of the genitourinary system. Therefore, the results of staging the polymerase chain reaction are not used when choosing treatment tactics. Most often, this method is used to monitor the effectiveness of therapy or for microbiological screening.

Serological examination

Serological diagnostics is based on the determination of antibodies produced by the patient's body to antigenic structures on the surface of ureaplasma cells or the antigens of pathogenic bacteria themselves. Serological research is used to establish the causes of infectious diseases after childbirth, miscarriage, infertility.

Various methodological approaches have been developed to conduct such a study. The enzyme immunoassay is characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, which makes it possible to detect infection and, taking into account the amount of antibodies to ureaplasmas, to follow the course of the infectious process. The material for analysis is venous blood.

Disadvantages of the method

Often, the progression of infection is accompanied by the synthesis of immunoglobulins in sufficient quantities. In addition, antibodies after a recent illness remain in the blood, which significantly complicates the differentiation of a new disease from an already cured one.

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Microscopic examination

Microscopy of the obtained biomaterial (in most cases, isolation) is carried out using a direct or indirect reaction of immunofluorescence. These methods are relatively cheap and simple to implement, but have low sensitivity, as a result of which they cannot be used with a small number of pathogens in the material.

Conclusion

Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages, but they are all used by doctors for the differential diagnosis of urogenital diseases. A combination of several methods can obtain reliable results.

In addition to methods of diagnosis and differentiation of pathogens, with urogenital diseases, a general blood and urine test is prescribed, anamnesis is taken and an examination of the genitals is carried out. The treatment strategy is developed by the attending physician based on the results obtained.

An important role in the treatment of such diseases is played by the correct choice of antibiotic, as well as the functional state of the immune system. As a rule, therapy for ureaplasma infection includes antibiotics, antifungal drugs, immunomodulatory agents, vitamins. After a course of therapy, it is necessary to re-take tests to check the effectiveness of treatment.

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