Table of contents:
- Description and life cycle of parasites
- Worms of defeat
- Signs and symptoms of infection
- What is the danger to the child's body
- How to diagnose ascariasis
- Methods for removing the parasite
- Preventive measures
Video: Ascaris In Children: Symptoms And Treatment, Prevention Methods
Roundworms are more common in children than in adults. There are several reasons for this: insufficiently formed and developed immunity, the problem of "dirty hands", intense contact with the environment and plants. The child does not have the necessary hygiene skills, often forgets to wash vegetables and fruits. A feature of ascariasis is that worms reproduce exclusively in the human body.
- 1 Description and life cycle of parasites
- 2 Ways of defeat by a worm
- 3 Signs and symptoms of infection
- 4 What is the danger to the child's body
- 5 How to diagnose ascariasis
6 Methods for removing the parasite
- 6.1 Medicines
- 6.2 Folk remedies
- 7 Preventive measures
Description and life cycle of parasites
Ascaris worms belong to the family of round parasites. The carrier and vector is a human (child or adult), the stage of stay in other organisms (for example, domestic animals) is absent in these individuals.
There are 2 stages of development:
- early - penetration;
- chronic (active reproduction of worms).
At the first stage, the eggs enter the stomach and intestines through the esophagus, where, under the influence of enzymatic activity, they are freed from the protective membrane and begin to move through various organs and systems. So, helminths penetrate the tissues of the liver, heart, lungs. Further, after the larvae mature, they move to the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, mouth and nasopharynx, in order to return to the intestines, along with food and saliva.
There comes the next stage - chronic: the worms acquire a permanent "place of residence", begin to actively multiply, spread in the body and release toxins.
The duration of the early stage, on average, is about 90 days. At the next stage, growth occurs, the formation of a sexually mature helminth in the small intestine. He lives for about a year, having time to lay eggs, then dies and is excreted from the body (with feces)
The danger is that it is impossible to distinguish the eggs of parasites without special studies, optical means: their size is less than a millimeter - 100x45 microns, and these are the largest.
The amazing fertility of the female (up to 240 thousand eggs per day, 64 million per year) leaves no chance of avoiding infection: according to statistics, about a billion people are carriers of the worm.
The laid eggs must go through the stage of shell formation, being in the soil in incubator conditions - a temperature in the range of 13-26 ° C and a humidity of no more than 8%. Therefore, most often, helminths are tied to specific, geographically determined, habitats. These are relatively warm countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
In Central Russia, the chance to acquire unwanted neighbors is also great, this happens in summer - early autumn, along with poorly processed (washed) vegetables and fruits. If there are suitable conditions in the storage (cellar or basement), then the roundworms remain viable there, remaining in the form of larvae in winter.
Worms of defeat
There is only one way of penetration for worms in the larval stage - through the oral cavity, with poorly washed fruits, in contact with the soil (in summer). Further, the carrier begins to actively distribute eggs, excreting them along with feces. The subtlety of preventive measures to combat ascariasis is that the usual washing with water, heat treatment of products at 50 ° C and above (including boiling water) minimizes the risk of infection.
This specificity makes it possible to identify the most characteristic groups (age, professional and social characteristics) susceptible to infection:
- Workers of sewage treatment plants, sewers.
- Rural residents (with neglect of the requirements of general hygiene).
Once in the body, the larva must then return to the oral cavity in order to continue actively spreading through the tissues and systems of the body. Despite the fact that the helminth can fully form in the intestines, the settling of larvae in the heart, liver, lungs, blood vessels also damages the host.
An underfilled old cesspool or village toilet is a potential source of contamination. The way out consists in complete isolation of such places for 2 years or more, disinfection with bleach and other chemicals.
Signs and symptoms of infection
There are several characteristic signs of the presence of helminths in the body - they depend on the age of the patient and the stage of infection. Individual characteristics, the level of immunity, concomitant diseases and other factors should also be taken into account. Children, due to their poor organization and frequent contact with the soil, are more likely to become infected than adults.
Approximately 30-60 days after the larvae enter the body, the child can feel, complain about:
- general breakdown;
- severe fatigue;
- increase (jumps) in body temperature;
- dermatological reactions (itching, rash).
In some cases, when the larvae and individuals of helminths accumulate in the lung tissues, there is a cough with sputum production, sometimes blood clots, pain in the chest area, shortness of breath. Symptoms include an increase in the size of the lymph nodes (determined visually and by palpation), liver, spleen - organs where ascaris is likely to be detected.
At the intestinal stage, asthenic reactions, digestive disorders, and increased excitability are manifested. The most characteristic sign of the presence of unwanted guests in the organs of the child is a general malfunction in the digestive tract: constipation, bouts of diarrhea, combined in an arbitrary order.
Children can observe themselves or find with the help of adults a thickening in the abdominal region, accompanied by sharp bouts of pain (sometimes after light pressure). Localization of the places of accumulation of ascaris is difficult, usually small patients complain of discomfort in the entire abdominal cavity.
What is the danger to the child's body
The child begins to be capricious for no reason: he eats poorly, suffers from increased salivation, accompanied by nausea, refuses dairy products. It should be added to this problems with concentration, the manifestation of the depressing effect of toxins secreted by worms (twitching of the limbs during sleep), hysterics of varying duration, general depression.
Parasites are dangerous in and of themselves, but as a result of their vigorous activity, the work of organs and systems in a still unformed organism is disrupted. In especially severe cases, the patient may not withstand the fight against helminths - according to statistics, infant mortality from ascaris remains a sad, but real fact.
How to diagnose ascariasis
It is problematic to identify signs of the penetration of parasites, therefore, they use complex diagnostic methods, without giving preference to any particular method. The traditional way to detect the presence of worm eggs in the host's body is to take a stool test. Its effectiveness increases as the parasites multiply, when they have already entered the digestive tract, at an early stage such a technique will not give a result.
Another nuance of scatological analysis is the alternation of growth and egg-laying periods in female ascaris: during a pause, it is impossible to identify their traces in the feces. Most often, the study is carried out in 2 stages, with an interval of 10-14 days (maturation period). If a male is present in the host's body (helminths of different sexes), then this method cannot be used at all.
The next technique is a blood test. A disproportionate increase in the number of leukocytes, combined with other positive results, indicates the presence of parasites. Occasionally, larvae can be found in sputum, but this analysis has not been spread. Fluoroscopy is effective at the stage of internal migration along the respiratory tract: in 90% of cases, it is possible to accurately determine the movement of larvae in the lungs.
In turn, an X-ray examination of the small intestine also gives a clear picture of violations of the integrity of the mucous membrane, the presence of adult helminths.
Methods for removing the parasite
The desire to lime worms, to get rid of their presence is a normal and necessary action: the longer the worms are in the child's body, the more harm they will cause him. Medicinal, folk and preventive methods are used. Each of them is effective in its own way.
Taking medications according to the treatment regimen is carried out under the supervision of a physician, after detecting the presence of parasites in the body (passing tests and confirming control samples). The specifics depend on the condition of the child, the stage of development of ascariasis, and the tolerability of medications.
Most often assigned:
- at an early stage - Dekaris, Vermox, Termox, Mertekt, Tetusim;
- for the intestinal stage - Pirantel, Dekaris, Piperazine.
In case of complications in the tissues of the bronchi, the patient can be cured by using complex treatment, including corticosteroids and anthelmintics.
Alternative, non-drug methods are widely known, which make it possible to cure parasites from infection no less effectively.
To destroy the larvae and adult roundworms, they use a diet: they limit the intake of flour, sweet, fatty meat and fish. But dairy products, carrots, tomatoes, beets, cauliflower are strongly recommended. The daily diet includes mashed cereals (rice, semolina, buckwheat), fresh fruits, berries
Infection with helminths is expressed in a drop in immunity; increasing it by taking vitamins, it is possible to remove unwanted guests from the body. In addition, milk-garlic enemas, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and onions are used. Parasites do not like phytoncides, they suffer without a lack of carbohydrates, so onions and garlic, eaten with a decrease in the number of buns, cakes, sweets, help get rid of them forever.
Prevention methods include the strictest adherence to the rules of personal hygiene (washing hands with soap, banning the use of dirty vegetables and fruits), periodic testing for the presence of eggs, eating carrots, nuts, garlic, and refusal of sweets and muffins.