Phleboderma: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Skin Disease

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Phleboderma: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Skin Disease
Phleboderma: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Skin Disease

Video: Phleboderma: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Skin Disease

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Video: Scleroderma - Pathogenesis, Clinical features and Treatment 2023, February
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  • Causes of occurrence
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostic methods
  • Treatment methods
  • Prevention and possible consequences
  • You can defeat parasites!

Phleboderma is a parasitic disease that belongs to the group of entomoses, that is, diseases caused by insects, in this case, mosquitoes of the genus Phlebotomus.

The prevalence of the disease is due to the habitat of mosquitoes in hot, humid climates; it is mainly the Middle East and Central Asia.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Given the constant growth of tourist flows from our country to all regions of the world, information about phlebotoderma is becoming especially relevant, especially since anyone, regardless of gender and age, can become infected with it.

Causes of occurrence

The cause of phlebotoderma is the bite of the female Phlebotomus mosquito, which must be fed in the form of human blood before laying eggs.

Phlebotomus
Phlebotomus
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Phlebotomus mosquito female

It is characteristic that such a reaction occurs only after the second bite, the first does not cause any reaction. A favorable background for the development of the disease is some parasitic diseases, in particular, helminthiasis, past malaria, etc.

The mechanism of development of the disease is due to the ingress of saliva-antigen into the blood and in less significant amounts into the skin, but this is sufficient to damage the mast cells scattered in the dermis.

Apparently, the fact that mast cells are involved in the adaptive responses of the immune system explains the lack of skin response to the first bite, but the second bite triggers the immune response process: histamine and prostaglandin are released from mast cells, inflammation begins, an allergic antigen-antibody reaction develops and immune attack by T lymphocytes of a foreign antigen. Due to the growth of the mitotic activity of epidermal cells, edema and papules appear on the skin.

Symptoms

By the nature of the course of phlebotoderma, there are three forms of it:

  • acute, severe symptoms of which appear almost immediately after the bite;
  • chronic, moderately pronounced symptoms of which can develop in a few hours, or even days;
  • mixed, the symptoms of which appear an hour after the bite, but it develops slowly, takes a long time and is quite resistant to the treatment being carried out.

Symptoms are as follows (see photo):

  • a mosquito bite affects, as a rule, open parts of the body (face, neck, arms, legs) and causes swelling and the appearance of a pink spot;
  • in just a few hours it turns into a pale pink papule up to 1 cm in size, protruding above the skin, in the center of which you can see a punctate dark red hemorrhage, and the color of the papule itself turns into pearlescent;
  • after a few days, the papule thickens and turns into a node with a red crust in the center.
Symptoms
Symptoms
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Manifestation after a bite on different parts of the body

This whole process is accompanied by severe itching, which is especially dangerous in children - it is extremely difficult to keep them from scratching the itchy areas, and this threatens to introduce infection.

If the bites are numerous, and the allergic reaction is pronounced, then the rash may spread to closed areas of the body. At the same time, there are no violations of general well-being, although sometimes the temperature may rise and a feeling of weakness arises.

Take a phlebotoderma test

Symptoms Answer Muscle weakness Yes Not Puffiness Yes Not One-time spots on the skin Yes Not Appearance of a pale pink papule Yes Not Leather knot with a red crust in the center Yes Not Temperature increase Yes Not Nausea Yes Not Pain in the legs, arms Yes Not Diarrhea Yes Not Decreased appetite Yes Not

Diagnostic methods

Diagnostics
Diagnostics
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That is why the clinical minimum of the examination is carried out; in particular, with a pronounced allergic reaction in the general blood test, an acceleration of ESR and an increase in the number of eosinophils are observed.

Differential diagnosis is necessary to exclude urticaria, prurigo nodosum, prurigo, and other insect bites.

Histological analyzes are prescribed in difficult cases if hyperkeratosis (excessive thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis), acanthosis (coarsening of the skin at the site of injury), acute inflammation, etc.

Phleboderma, like any skin disease, raises a well-grounded question among others: is it contagious or not? Given the cause of the disease - a mosquito bite - this question can be safely answered in the negative.

Treatment methods

Treatment is carried out in a comprehensive manner, both external and internal means are used:

  • antihistamines to relieve allergies (Suprastin, Cetrin, Lorano);
  • ointments for getting rid of itching containing tar, sulfur and naftalan, as well as hormones and antihistamines (Fenistil, Naftaderm);
  • a course of vitamins B 1, B 2 and B 6 (7-10 days);
  • if the allergic reaction is too severe - glucocorticosteroids (Dexamethasone, Prednisolone) in a strictly individual dosage (taking into account the patient's condition, his weight, etc.);
  • in the event of complications, antibiotics.

A good effect is given by the appointment of sea, hydrogen sulfide and radon baths, as well as baths with pine needles and starch. Also shown are heliotherapy and ozokerite applications. If the disease does not respond well to treatment, laser therapy and cryomassage are additionally prescribed.

Treatment with folk remedies is aimed mainly at relieving itching, which is especially important in a child. You can use decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs and plants, which are traditionally used to treat dermatitis.

Prevention and possible consequences

Complications with phlebotoderma are extremely rare. If the allergic reaction is extremely acute, angioedema of Quincke may develop, causing severe suffocation up to more serious consequences, therefore, if it occurs, urgent hospitalization is necessary.

Another unpleasant consequence that can develop, especially if you comb the bite sites, is their infection with the appearance of pustular formations.

Disease prevention while staying in endemic regions is as follows:

  • using mosquito nets indoors;
  • wearing clothing that does not leave the body exposed to mosquito bites;
  • using mosquito repellents.

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