Fasciolopsis Buski: Life Cycle, Structure And Treatment

Table of contents:

Fasciolopsis Buski: Life Cycle, Structure And Treatment
Fasciolopsis Buski: Life Cycle, Structure And Treatment

Video: Fasciolopsis Buski: Life Cycle, Structure And Treatment

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Fasciolopsiasis - A Fasciolopsis buski Infection 2023, January
Anonim

Page content

  • Life cycle
  • How does fasciolopsidosis develop?
  • Symptoms and course of the disease
  • Diagnostics

    Fasciolopsidosis of the liver

  • Prevention
  • Fasciolopsidosis treatment
  • ethnoscience
  • Complications
  • You can defeat parasites!

Fasciolopsis buski is a trematode class worm that parasitizes the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals, causing fasciolopsidosis. Helminth is common in South and East Asia - China, India, Vietnam, Thailand, on the Indian Peninsula. The disease is diagnosed in 10 million people annually.

The body of an adult has a lingual shape. The length of the helminth reaches 15-50 mm, the width is 8.5-20 mm. Distinctive features: the body is orange with a reddish tint, blunt anterior end, wavy unbranched processes, abdominal suction cups for attachment to the walls of organs.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

The egg of the parasite is oval, relatively large, with a clearly visible lid. Its size ranges from 0.095 to 0.14 mm.

F. buski eggs are very similar to those of F. hepatica, differing in fact only in the structure of yolk cells; therefore, it is rather difficult to identify these trematodes only on the basis of the eggs found. However, in areas endemic for fasciolopsidosis, the diagnosis is usually not difficult.



Life cycle

The life cycle of trematodes begins when eggs with animal or human feces enter a freshwater body of water. The eggs are released into the water undeveloped. Only after getting into warm water, they begin to develop, and after 2-3 weeks miracidia emerge from them. Then these larvae enter the body of mollusks, which are intermediate hosts of the helminth. The first intermediate host of F. buski is small mollusks of the genera Segmentina, Hippeutis, Polypilus, Gyraulus.

By asexual reproduction inside the mollusk, tailed larvae are formed, which are called cercariae. Upon entering the aquatic environment, they attach to aquatic vegetation, forming cysts with a two-layer membrane and measuring 0.22 x 0.19 mm. Usually on one plant there are 15-20 cysts, but on a water nut there can be up to 200 of them. There, cercariae develop and in 5-7 weeks turn into adolescariae, which are invasive forms.

Humans, pigs, cats, dogs and other mammals become the ultimate hosts of the parasite. The larva enters their body by consuming aquatic vegetation or raw water. Once in the host's body, it leaves the cyst, attaches to the intestinal wall and reaches puberty in about 3 months. The lifespan of an adult worm is about one year.

The life cycle is closed when the eggs of the worm with feces are in the reservoir.

Life cycle
Life cycle
Image
Image

How does fasciolopsidosis develop?

How does fasciolopsidosis develop?
How does fasciolopsidosis develop?
Image
Image

The causative agent belongs to biohelminths, therefore it has a complex life cycle using three hosts. The final owners are people, pigs, dogs, cats, they secrete parasite eggs from their intestines with feces into the outside world. For subsequent development, the eggs must enter a freshwater environment, where after 14 - 21 days, larvae with cilia (miracidia) hatch from them.

These larvae, moving in water, are introduced into intermediate hosts (mollusks, snails), asexual reproduction occurs in their bodies, cercariae or tailed larvae are formed, which attach to aquatic plants (additional hosts) and are transformed into invasive forms - adolescaria. The duration of the entire development cycle of the parasite is about three months.

Adolescariae quickly die when dried, and in a humid environment and on aquatic plants they can survive for up to 1.5 - 2 years. In the organism of the last host, invasive forms enter when it eats aquatic plants (nuts, chestnuts, lotuses) or raw water, the parasites settle in the intestines and develop into adulthood.

Symptoms and course of the disease

The incubation period lasts from two to three weeks to two months, depending on the mass infection and the individual characteristics of the human body. Fasciolopsidosis mainly affects the human gastrointestinal tract, causing mechanical trauma to the intestines, the development of inflammation and ulcers at the site of introduction, as well as changes in the type of dystrophy in the liver and pancreas.

The products of the vital activity of parasites have a toxic effect on the human body. The acute stage of helminthiasis (with primary infection) is characterized by:

  1. abdominal pain;
  2. bloating;
  3. diarrhea fetid odor without blood impurities up to 6-7 times per day.

In people with reduced immunity, with intensive infection with parasites, there can be observed: swelling of the face, legs, scrotum in men, and debilitating diarrhea is complicated in the absence of treatment by dehydration.

Fasciolopsidosis can take on a chronic course, which is characterized by periodic moderate abdominal symptoms:

  1. Unstable stool with alternating diarrhea and constipation, or severe intestinal disorders leading to anemia, exhaustion of the patient;
  2. There is a predominance of an edematous form with extensive edema up to anasarca or "dry" fasciolopsidosis with general weakness, hypothermia, hypotension, hypoproteinemia, anemia, and the risk of death due to heart failure or cachexia.

Based only on clinical manifestations, it is impossible to diagnose this helminthiasis due to the nonspecificity of the symptom complex. To confirm the diagnosis, a coproovoscopic examination of the native smear is carried out, in which the characteristic large oval eggs of Fasciolopsis buski with clear caps are found.

Diagnostics

Due to the nonspecificity of clinical manifestations, it is rather difficult to establish an accurate diagnosis, guided solely by symptoms. Diagnostics consists in conducting the study of feces under a microscope.

The diagnosis is confirmed if helminth eggs are found. They can be recognized by their characteristic features: relatively large size, oval shape and clear caps. They very much resemble the eggs of the hepatic fluke, but in areas where fasciolopsidosis is considered endemic, there is no particular difficulty in the differential diagnosis of the disease.

Fasciolopsidosis can be cured with drugs that have anthelmintic activity. These medicines include praziquantel (this is the drug of choice), naphtamon and others. The dosage for each medication may be different, it is determined by the doctor.

The parasites usually grow and parasitize in the upper part of the small intestine, but in severe cases they can enter the stomach and lower intestines. In such severe cases, symptomatic treatment is required, which is often carried out in an inpatient setting.

Experts recommend that all family members of the patient be treated at the same time, since they could have been infected from one source.

Fasciolopsidosis of the liver

It was not possible to find information on cases when liver fasciolopsidosis developed, although this is stated on many Internet resources. It is not clear how Fasciolopsis buski can enter this organ. The relative of the parasite, the hepatic fluke, does this in the larval stage, making its way through the intestines and moving to the biliary system. But Fasciolopsis buski is not capable of that. The only unlikely path is intestinal perforation (breakthrough) in severe fasciolopsidosis, which still does not lead to an adult worm entering the liver.

Prevention

To reduce the risk of contracting fasciolopsidosis, it is recommended to follow the rules of personal hygiene, do not drink raw water, wash aquatic plants thoroughly before eating them, and also subject them to heat treatment or at least scald them. In endemic foci, it is necessary to take care of mass deworming. Moreover, it should be carried out not only for people, but also for pets, especially pigs.

Prevention of enterobiasis
Prevention of enterobiasis
Image
Image

To avoid contamination of water bodies with parasites, feces should be disinfected before they end up in wastewater. It is also worth considering the fact that the larvae of the adolescaria and the eggs of the parasite quickly die in conditions of low humidity.

By carrying out preventive drainage of the soil in hazardous regions, it is possible to reduce the incidence of this helminthiasis. Such a measure will also make it possible to reduce the number of intermediate shellfish hosts.

If treatment is carried out in a timely manner and complications are avoided, the prognosis of fasciolopsidosis is favorable. Otherwise, serious consequences are possible.

Fasciolopsidosis treatment

To effectively combat these parasites, popular anthelmintic drugs are used. Moreover, the best therapeutic effect is achieved in the treatment of fasciolopsidosis in the early stages of the development of this disease. The transition of the disease to a chronic form requires great efforts in treatment.

The most commonly used anthelmintic drugs are Naftamon and Praziquantel.

Praziquantel
Praziquantel
Image
Image

Naphtamon in a daily dose of 5 g in 50 ml of sugar syrup for adults and 2.5 g in 25 ml for children under 5 years of age is prescribed in the morning two hours before breakfast. Praziquantel is taken once in the evening. In this case, the medicine is calculated at a dose of 20 mg per 1 kg of the patient's weight.

In chronic stages, severe forms of fascilopsidosis, inpatient symptomatic treatment is required. The therapy is carried out under the strict supervision of the attending physician with strict adherence to a special diet. In addition, examination of all family members is required. If parasites are detected, appropriate treatment is prescribed.

ethnoscience

Due to the nonspecificity of the disease for our region, the use of alternative treatments has been poorly studied. It is only known about the effectiveness of freshly squeezed cherry juice, which has anthelmintic properties in relation to this invasion.

Complications

The consequences of fasciolopsidosis can be:

  • cachexia or wasting of the body;
  • persistent diarrhea;
  • ascites;
  • liver abscesses;
  • heart failure;
  • massive swelling;
  • fatal outcome.

Popular by topic