Pulmonary Fluke: Symptoms Of Infection, Life Cycle Of Development, Photo

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Pulmonary Fluke: Symptoms Of Infection, Life Cycle Of Development, Photo
Pulmonary Fluke: Symptoms Of Infection, Life Cycle Of Development, Photo

Video: Pulmonary Fluke: Symptoms Of Infection, Life Cycle Of Development, Photo

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Video: Liver & Lung Fluke Step 1 Study Guide- Fasciola, Clonorchis sinesis & Paragonimus westermani 2023, February
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  • What does a pulmonary fluke look like?
  • Development life cycle
  • Pulmonary fluke eggs
  • Infection routes
  • What diseases causes
  • Symptoms and signs of infection
  • Pulmonary fluke treatment
  • You can defeat parasites!

Paragonimiasis is a disease caused by a group of flukes called pulmonary flukes. The pulmonary fluke can parasitize in animals and humans.

On average, a worm can live for about 20 years. Penetrating into the lungs, the helminth provokes serious disorders, if ignored, serious diseases develop.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

What does a pulmonary fluke look like?

There are about 10 varieties of flukes that infect the human body. The most common species is Paragonimu westermani. Each type of worm is different in size, has a red-brown color, they can grow up to 15 mm in length and up to 8 mm in width.

Paragonimus westermani
Paragonimus westermani
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Paragonimu westermani

The body is distinguished by an oval shape, covered with a tegument with spines. The oral and abdominal suckers have a round, muscular structure. The dimensions of the abdominal sucker are 0.19 mm, the oral one is 0.12 mm.

In addition to the suckers, the parasite has:

  • bladder;
  • intestines;
  • uterus;
  • ovaries;
  • testis.

Development life cycle

A prerequisite for the development of the parasite is the presence of two intermediate hosts (snails, crustaceans). Man and animals are the ultimate host. Infestation occurs through the consumption of infected crustaceans or terrestrial infected animals.

A person is susceptible to infection when eating raw or not undergone high-quality heat treatment of crayfish, crabs, in the body of which the larvae are at the last stage of development.

PW life cycle
PW life cycle
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Life cycle of a parasite

After swallowing the infected meat, the larva enters the intestines, from where, within half an hour or two days, begins migration and enters the peritoneal organs.

The parasite develops in the liver and abdominal organs for about a week, then migration begins again - this is how the parasite has the opportunity to get to the pleural cavity of the lungs.

Once in the lungs, cysts form around the worms, in which they multiply and develop. Adult worms are hermaphrodites, so they self-fertilize.

The first clutch of eggs occurs approximately one and a half months after infection. When the cystic cavity fills with a large number of eggs, it bursts and the eggs are expelled along with the phlegm. Also, during coughing, they can get into the mouth, and a person swallows them along with saliva - thus, eggs come out along with feces.

For development, eggs must get into the water, where they will be until the intermediate hosts (snails) enter the body. Inside the snail, the miracidium develops into a sporocyst, which produces redia, which in turn produces cercariae.

Then they leave the snail's body and go to other intermediate hosts (crustaceans). The last stage begins when the final host (human) eats the infected crustacean. The cycle repeats itself.

Pulmonary fluke eggs

Helminth eggs are microscopic in size (about 70 microns), so they cannot be detected in feces or sputum without using a microscope.

Under the microscope, you can see that the eggs have a wide oval shape, their color is golden, yellowish. The egg shell is double-sided, there is a lid with a tubercle.

Pulmonary fluke eggs
Pulmonary fluke eggs
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Pulmonary fluke eggs

Infection routes

The main cause of infection is the consumption of meat from crabs, fish, crayfish, which has not undergone high-quality heat treatment. Also, invasion can occur by water - the parasite retains its vital functions in the environment after the death of the intermediate host for 25 days.

Therefore, it is best to avoid drinking raw water from reservoirs with increased endemic rates.

What diseases causes

Usually, paragonimiasis is severe, but its course can be accompanied by serious complications:

  • bleeding;
  • pleural effusion;
  • lung infarction;
  • the formation of cystic cavities near the heart.

The infection may spread to other organs and tissues. When the parasite enters the brain, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can develop.

In the process of drug treatment, for protection, the parasite forms a fortified shell around itself, which allows it to avoid the negative effects of medicines. In such cases, surgical therapies are needed.

Symptoms and signs of infection

Intestinal and stage of migration Pulmonary stage Penetration of the parasite into the brain
In addition to abdominal pain, a person develops symptoms similar to the course of such diseases:

  • acute form of hepatitis;
  • enteritis;
  • aseptic peritonitis.

Due to the poisoning of the body with the products of its vital activity, an allergic skin rash is observed.

  • Severe coughing fits, possibly with purulent, bloody sputum.
  • Increased body temperature (about 40 degrees).

When the cystic cavities burst and the helminth gets out of them, the disease becomes chronic. Exacerbations are replaced by remission. Symptoms are blurred - this period can be observed for 2-4 years.

With each attack of exacerbation, the symptoms become less pronounced. Fibrous foci are formed, pulmonary heart syndrome appears, and pneumosclerosis develops. Quite often, this condition becomes the cause of death, it can be accompanied by:

  • unstable psycho-emotional state;
  • increased fatigue, weakness, regardless of stress;
  • sleep problems.
Almost all symptoms are similar to the course of meningitis, meningoencephalitis:

  • dizziness;
  • headaches;
  • increased intracranial pressure;
  • epileptic seizures, convulsions;
  • vision problems, its complete loss is possible.

Pulmonary fluke treatment

Before choosing the methods of treatment, the patient must go through all the diagnostic measures, take tests. To detect the parasite, blood, feces, sputum are examined.

In addition to serological studies, fluorography is one of the most effective ways to diagnose the disease. After confirming the diagnosis, the doctor selects the safest and most effective method of treatment.

Pulmonary fluke
Pulmonary fluke
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The effectiveness of therapy is influenced by many individual factors, for example, the neglect of the invasion.

If the patient goes to a medical facility at an early stage of infection, the prognosis for recovery is favorable.

If the diagnosis indicates multiple presence of cystic formations, drug treatment may be ineffective, therefore, it is necessary to resort to surgical therapy.

In the early stages, it is enough to carry out only drug therapy.

Usually, to combat helminths, they are prescribed:

  • Praziquantel;
  • Emetine;
  • Chloxyl.
Praziquantel
Praziquantel
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Treatment is comprehensive. Anthelminthic drugs are accompanied by a course of sorbents, vitamin complexes, immunomodulators and antihistamines. An integrated approach allows you to weaken the negative manifestations of the disease, speed up the healing process, restore damaged organs and safely remove toxins from the body.

It is important to cancel - folk recipes for dealing with a pulmonary fluke will only help to weaken the manifestations of negative symptoms, and in some cases may even aggravate the problem.

Any methods of alternative therapy should be agreed with the attending physician, since they, like other methods, have certain contraindications with side effects.

In order to avoid relapses, it is important to follow the preventive rules:

  • Refuse the use of thermally unprocessed crustaceans, fish.
  • Avoid swimming in unknown, polluted water bodies, especially to use water from them.
  • Carry out preventive worming of pets and observe the rules of personal hygiene.
  • Timely undergo preventive examinations by a doctor.

No one is immune from infestation by helminths, however, if preventive standards are observed, the risk of infection is significantly reduced. Lung fluke is a life-threatening parasite that is difficult to treat and can be fatal.

If a person is faced with manifestations of negative symptoms, it is better to contact a medical facility and exclude the possibility of self-medication. Only after an accurate diagnosis is made, it becomes possible to choose a safe and effective treatment.

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