Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus: Treatment, Antibiotics, Throat Swab

Table of contents:

Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus: Treatment, Antibiotics, Throat Swab
Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus: Treatment, Antibiotics, Throat Swab

Video: Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus: Treatment, Antibiotics, Throat Swab

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) – Infectious Diseases | Lecturio 2023, February
Anonim

Page content

  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostic measures
  • Beta hemolytic streptococcus in the pharynx
  • Symptoms in children
  • Treatment of hemolytic streptococcus in children
  • Treatment in adults
  • ethnoscience
  • Complications
  • You can defeat parasites!

One of the most common microbes in the human body is beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Penetrating into the tissues of the body, streptococci can cause purulent inflammation and palpable pain in the throat, sore throat, scarlet fever, skin infections and blood poisoning.

Beta-hemolytic streptococcus is divided into 20 groups. The greatest danger to human health is the beta-hemolytic streptococcus of group A. Harmful microorganisms of this group can cause sore throat, but most often they do not carry dangerous complications.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Streptococcal infections are known for their ability to produce toxins that damage blood cells and heart muscle tissue and dilate small blood vessels, leading to a rash.

The resulting toxins lead to a rapid increase in body temperature, headache, vomiting and deterioration of consciousness. In addition, bacteria produce enzymes that penetrate the tissues of the diseased organism and spread there, causing inflammation. There are such types of streptococci, which are part of the microflora of the oral cavity, being on the teeth and gums of a person, they can cause various diseases. So, greening streptococcus can be the causative agent of endocarditis and caries.



A pathogenic infection is transmitted from a sick person by airborne droplets or by household means. The penetration of microbes into the patient's body in most cases occurs by their entry into the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, but there are cases when infection occurs through damaged skin.

Symptoms

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common causative agent of throat infections occurring in the form of pharyngitis and tonsillitis.

Patients with acute inflammation of the pharynx complain of discomfort when swallowing, dryness, sore throat and general discomfort. They develop weakness, cephalalgia, subfebrile condition, their voice changes. The occipital and submandibular lymph nodes increase and hurt, and ear congestion appears.

The chronic form of pharyngitis proceeds more calmly. The patients have no signs of intoxication, their condition remains satisfactory.

The mucus on the back of the throat requires constant swallowing. This irritates patients, disrupts their sleep and appetite.

Acute inflammation of the tonsils or tonsillitis begins suddenly. In patients, regional lymph nodes increase, a severe sore throat occurs. Pathology is always accompanied by severe intoxication.

The body temperature reaches febrile values, there is a shaking chill, myalgia and arthralgia, general weakness, cephalalgia, dyspepsia. The sore throat grows and becomes unbearable. Patients cannot eat and speak normally. Even the process of swallowing saliva causes severe pain.

If acute inflammation is not treated in time, the process will become chronic. This form often proceeds without visible symptoms and is much more difficult to diagnose.

The disease is manifested by recurrent sore throat, which increases with eating, soreness of the submandibular lymph nodes, dry mouth, coughing in the morning with the release of a small amount of purulent sputum.

Exacerbations of the disease occur whenever immunity decreases. At the same time, the temperature rises, and the complete picture of acute inflammation unfolds.

Beta hemolytic streptococcus
Beta hemolytic streptococcus
Image
Image

Beta hemolytic streptococcus

Diagnostic measures

Diagnosis of beta hemolytic streptococci begins with interviewing and examining the patient, collecting anamnesis of life and illness, and physical examination.

The main method for determining the etiology of infectious pathology is bacteriological.

In a microbiological laboratory, biological material taken from a patient is examined - sputum, mucus from the throat and nose, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine.

The material for research is inoculated on selective culture media with blood - blood or chocolate agar. For growing and enriching the culture, sowing is performed in sugar broth.

Incubation is carried out in a thermostat at 37 ° C for a day. Then the results are taken into account by examining the grown colonies. Usually these are small grayish or translucent colonies surrounded by a transparent or greenish zone.

Analysis for roundworm
Analysis for roundworm
Image
Image

Microscopy is a mandatory step in any bacteriological study. The smears are Gram stained and microscoped at maximum magnification under a light microscope.

In the field of view, blue small cocci are found - spherical cells arranged in chains, sometimes in pairs.

In the broth, bacteria grow with the formation of diffuse cloudiness and sediment at the bottom of the test tube. Further research is aimed at identifying the isolated microorganism to species. For this, tests are performed with optoquin, bacitracin, bile, and inoculated into milk with methylene blue. Clinicians need to know which antibiotics the microbe is sensitive to.

According to the results of the antibioticogram, they prescribe treatment to patients.

  • Serological and immunological studies are carried out with the blood of patients. With the help of various modifications of the agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the presence of antibodies to streptococcus and the amount of immunoglobulins of each type are determined.
  • PCR is an express method that allows you to make a diagnosis quickly and accurately. The genetic material of Streptococcus haemolyticus is found in a blood sample or nasopharyngeal discharge.

Beta hemolytic streptococcus in the pharynx

Streptococcal sore throat, caused by the appearance of a microbe in the pharynx, is manifested by sore throat, high fever, purulent plaque on the tonsils, etc. The plaque is always purulent, colored white and yellow. In addition, a person has symptoms of general intoxication (lethargy, headache, chills, weakness, etc.).

When examining the pharynx, redness of the palatine arches, uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall is revealed, the tonsils are enlarged, swollen and loosened. Sore throat can have varying degrees of severity, depending on the severity of the course of the sore throat.

Also, streptococcal sore throat is characterized by an increase and inflammation of the lymph nodes and lymph vessels. Typically, these symptoms of beta-hemolytic streptococcus persist for 5 to 7 days, and then pass, and recovery occurs.

However, the same exact symptoms are inherent in sore throat caused by other bacteria. Therefore, the symptoms of beta-hemolytic streptococcus in the pharynx are not strictly specific, and do not allow, by their nature, to verify the pathogen microbe.

In some cases, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, located in the pharynx, causes scarlet fever, which is characterized by symptoms of sore throat and a rash on the body. In this case, the symptoms, in addition to sore throat, fever and pharyngitis, will also be a small red rash on the body and a raspberry tongue. Such a rash and a raspberry tongue can be attributed to the specific symptoms of beta-hemolytic streptococcus in the pharynx, which clearly indicate that this microbe is the causative agent of the infection.

In children under 3 years of age, beta-hemolytic streptococcus in the pharynx can manifest the following symptoms:

  • Rhinitis;
  • Stuffy nose;
  • Slight rise in temperature.

Angina up to 3 years of age almost never develops due to the peculiarities of local

That is, the disease proceeds either asymptomatically or in the form of a common sore throat, the symptoms of which are not specific.

Symptoms in children

In children, the clinical picture has pronounced symptoms, as the disease develops rapidly. Initially, the baby is worried about chills and malaise, then other symptoms appear. Signs of infection in children under 6 months of age:

  1. The child refuses to eat.
  2. Coryza with copious greenish or yellow discharge.
  3. Tearfulness, irritability, restless sleep.
  4. Nausea and vomiting.

In children of preschool and school age, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and swollen lymph nodes are observed.

The main symptoms include:

  1. Complaints of pain and sore throat.
  2. Headache and dizziness.
  3. Obsessive coughing.
  4. Heat.

Beta hemolytic streptococcus in children is especially dangerous, as it can cause diseases such as laryngitis, scarlet fever, rheumatoid arthritis, endocarditis, otitis media, tonsillitis, vasculitis.



Treatment of hemolytic streptococcus in children

Therapy of streptococcal infection is carried out with the help of antibacterial drugs, which can quickly eliminate the number of bacteria, reduce the risk of complications and prevent damage to other internal organs.

Penicillin group:

  1. Benzylpenicillin - injections are given intramuscularly.
  2. Penicillin V - the course of treatment depends on the severity of the disease and the age of the patient.
  3. Flemoxin Solutab - taken 1 g in the morning and in the evening.
  4. Amoxiclav - for children it is prescribed in the form of a suspension, for adults injections or tablets.
Benzylpenicillin
Benzylpenicillin
Image
Image

Cephalosporin group:

  1. Ceftazidime - intramuscular injections 2 times a day.
  2. Cefuroxime-axetin is administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
Ceftazidime
Ceftazidime
Image
Image

These groups of drugs are most effective against hemolytic streptococci. However, before prescribing a specific type of antibiotic, it is necessary to conduct a laboratory antibioticogram, which will determine the sensitivity of the bacterium to this or that type of drug.

The duration of treatment is 7-10 days, depending on the severity of the disease. In combination with antibiotics, other drugs are prescribed that relieve characteristic symptoms:

  1. Solutions for gargling and throat rinsing.
  2. Antiseptic absorbable tablets and lozenges.
  3. Antipyretic drugs.
  4. Vasoconstrictor nasal drops.

When diagnosing group a beta hemolytic streptococcus, treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a specialist. Since it is necessary to control the restoration of the intestinal microflora, monitor the strengthening of immunity and the reduction of intoxication.

To increase the effectiveness of treatment, traditional medicine recipes are added to drug therapy. Teas with rose hips, cranberries and raspberry leaves will help reduce inflammation and increase immunity. For gargling, it is useful to use decoctions of string, oak and willow bark.

If the throat is affected, it is worth revising the menu and excluding hot, cold and solid foods, which will injure the inflamed mucosa.

Group "a" beta streptococcus, if untreated, can cause complications such as liver and kidney abscesses, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis and toxic shock. Such consequences often occur 7-27 days after the onset of the infection and require hospitalization.

In order to avoid the development of streptococcal infection, it is necessary to strengthen the body's defenses, avoid contact with infected people, and promptly treat possible foci of infection: caries, boils, inflammation of the adenoids and tonsils.

Treatment in adults

Beta-hemolytic streptococcus must be treated only if it has caused an acute infectious and inflammatory disease (angina, pharyngitis, scarlet fever, rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.).

Streptococcus treatment in this case is carried out with antibiotics. In principle, streptococcal sore throat and without antibiotics will pass on its own in a week. However, if you do not use antibiotics to treat angina caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus, then the risk of complications such as rheumatism, myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, etc. is high.

That is, antibiotics in the treatment of streptococcal sore throats are necessary as the main means of preventing inflammatory infections of other organs, where the microbe can be introduced with the blood stream.

Treatment of beta-hemolytic streptococcus with antibiotics is necessary to eradicate the microbe and prevent complications. For therapy, antibiotics from the group of penicillins, macrolides or cephalosporins are most often used. When penicillins and cephalosporins are ineffective, lincosamides are used.

The following systemic antibiotics are used to treat beta-hemolytic streptococcus:

  • Benzylpenicillin - administered intravenously up to 6 times a day;
  • Phenoxymethylpenicillin - taken orally at 375 mg (children) or 750 mg (adults) 2 times a day;
  • Amoxicillin (Flemoxin Solutab) - taken internally at 375 mg (children) or 750 mg (adults) 2 times a day;
  • Augmentin (Amoxiclav) - taken internally at 375 mg (children) or 750 mg (adults) 2 times a day;
  • Azithromycin (Sumamed) - adults take 500 mg on the first day, 250 mg on the following days of treatment. In children, the dosage is calculated based on the ratio of 12 mg per 1 kg of body weight;
  • Cefuroxime is administered intravenously or intramuscularly at 30 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day, 2 times a day. In addition, it can be taken in tablets of 250-500 mg 2 times a day;
  • Ceftazidime (Fortum) is administered intravenously or intramuscularly at 100 - 150 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. The entire antibiotic dose is given in one injection;
  • Ceftriaxone is administered intravenously or intramuscularly at 20 - 80 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. The entire antibiotic dose is given in one injection;
  • Cefotaxime is administered intravenously or intramuscularly at 50 - 100 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. The entire antibiotic dose is given in one injection. This drug is used when previously used antibiotics are ineffective;
  • Cefixime (Suprax) - take 400 mg once a day;
  • Josamycin - take 40-50 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day;
  • Midecamycin (Macropen) - take 40-50 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day;
  • Clarithromycin - take 6 - 8 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day;
  • Roxithromycin - take 6 - 8 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day;
  • Spiramycin (Rovamycin) - take 100 IU per 1 kg of body weight 2 times a day;
  • Erythromycin - take 50 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day.



The duration of treatment for beta-hemolytic streptococcus is 7 to 10 days. If antibiotics are used in shorter courses, this often leads to chronic infection and subsequent relapses.

In addition, topical agents containing antibiotics or antiseptics are used as adjuvants for the treatment of beta-hemolytic streptococcus. These products are available in the form of aerosols, tablets and lozenges. Currently, the most effective topical treatments for beta-hemolytic streptococcus are:

  • Bioparox is a spray containing the antibiotic Fyuzafunzhin. It is applied topically in the form of injections into the throat and nasal passages;
  • Ingalipt is a spray containing a sulfa drug. It is applied topically in the form of injections into the throat;
  • Tonsilgon N is a herbal immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory drug that is taken in the form of drops or pills;
  • Geksoral is a throat rinse or spray containing an antiseptic. Apply topically to injecting or gargling;
  • Chlorhexidine - contained in lozenges (for example, Hexoral, Anti-Angin, Sebidin, Faringosept, etc.);
  • Cetylpyridine - contained in lozenges (Septolete, etc.);
  • Dichlorobenzene alcohol - contained in sprays and lozenges (Strepsils, Rinza Lorsept, Ajisept, Astrasept, Suprima-ENT, Terasil, etc.);
  • Iodine - found in solutions for gargling and sprays (Iodinol, Yoks, Vokadin, Povidone-iodine).

ethnoscience

Such an infection can be treated at home, supplementing the prescribed drug therapy with folk recipes. They will help eliminate unpleasant symptoms of pathology, relieve inflammation and increase immunity:

  • raspberry and rosehip leaves;
  • willow bark and grass succession;
  • propolis.

Complications

Complications are rare but do occur, especially in people with weak immune systems. All of them can be roughly divided into two groups - early and late.

Late complications can manifest themselves 2–4 weeks after the patient's apparent recovery. As a rule, they are directly related to non-compliance with therapy, lack of antibiotic therapy. This group includes:

Streptococcal throat ailments can be cured only with the use of antibiotics. Correctly prescribed treatment is a guarantee of a quick recovery of the patient, as well as the exclusion of the development of complications in him.

It is important to first diagnose the disease. Usually, LHC-seeding is used for this purpose. A swab is taken from the patient's throat and sown on a nutrient medium to identify the pathogen. Until the results are obtained, the patient is prescribed broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs.

The duration of antibiotic therapy ranges from 7 to 10 days. If the disease is severe, then not the tablet forms of these drugs are prescribed, but solutions and powders for i / m administration. Preference is given to antibiotics from the penicillin group. If the patient is allergic to drugs from this group, cephalosporins are preferred. With the progression of scarlet fever, macrolides are also added to the general course of therapy.

Treatment of streptococcal infection should also be aimed at eliminating the main symptoms of the pathology. For this purpose, the following drugs and procedures are prescribed:

  • flushing the throat and tonsils;
  • drinking liquid (warm);
  • vasoconstrictor agents;
  • antipyretic drugs;
  • resorption of antiseptic tablets.

Popular by topic