Heteracidosis Of Chickens: Parasitology, Ways Of Infection And Treatment

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Heteracidosis Of Chickens: Parasitology, Ways Of Infection And Treatment
Heteracidosis Of Chickens: Parasitology, Ways Of Infection And Treatment

Video: Heteracidosis Of Chickens: Parasitology, Ways Of Infection And Treatment

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Coccidiosis in chickens 2023, February
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  • Causative agents
  • Infection routes
  • Acute form
  • Permanent course of the disease
  • Pathological changes
  • Diagnostics
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • You can defeat parasites!

Heterakidosis (lat.heterakidosis) is a helminthiasis caused by nematodes of the genus Heterakis, affecting chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls and other domestic and wild birds. The disease mainly affects the cecum.

Although heterokidosis is moderately pathogenic, the main problem is the likelihood of a secondary infection caused by the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Causative agents

Heterakydosis is caused by nematodes of the genus Heterakis, which infect chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, hazel grouses, quails, pheasants, guinea fowls and other domestic and wild birds.

The most significant species for poultry:

  • Heterakis gallinarum infects mainly chickens, but also turkeys, geese, guinea fowls, etc.
  • Heterakis disparinfects are mainly ducks and geese.
  • Heterakis isolonche - mainly of pheasants and other wild birds.
Heterakis
Heterakis
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Image

The body of the parasites is yellowish in color, has a spherical bulb located on the esophagus. There are three lips around the mouth. The body length of the male is up to 13 mm. It has a stiletto tail. The female reaches 15 mm in length. The uterus is located in its tail section. The eggs of the parasite are oval in shape.

The maximum level of infection was recorded in the period from spring to autumn, since moisture and heat are optimal conditions for the development of helminths, but their larvae are able to withstand low temperatures (overwinter).

Infection routes

Heterakydosis of birds develops when eating infected food or ingesting eggs with water. Infection also occurs when eating earthworms or flies, which are carriers of helminthiasis.

Heterakydosis of birds develops after eating infected food or swallowing eggs with water. Infection also occurs when eating earthworms or flies that swallow eggs. In the body of these paratenic (transport) hosts, the larvae hatch but do not develop, but wait.

When a bird is infected, the parasite enters the intestines, and then, in the form of larvae, enters the blind processes. After 24-35 days, helminths turn into adults capable of producing offspring. Some larvae can enter the mucous membrane and remain there for many years without further development.

Acute form

When infected with a strong degree, chickens are observed:

  • diarrhea turning into profuse (profuse, prolonged, practically not stopping);
  • loss of appetite;
  • weakness;
  • anemic (pallor) scallop;
  • retarded plumage growth;
  • chilliness.

The development and growth of the bird slows down, cachexia develops (depletion of the body), and death is possible.

Acute form
Acute form
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Image

Permanent course of the disease

It is typical for most cases of the disease, especially in adult chickens. Clinical signs:

  • indigestion;
  • decreased appetite;
  • general weakness;
  • emaciation;
  • loss of activity;
  • diarrhea;
  • decrease in egg production or complete cessation;
  • depressed state;
  • decrease in laying.

With the simultaneous course of heterocytosis with ascariasis, the disease is more severe.

Pathological changes

  • exhaustion and anemic corpse;
  • the skin and feathers in the area of ​​the cloaca are profusely stained with liquid droppings.

After opening, changes are found in the cecum:

  • increase in size, swelling;
  • elongation of the tops;
  • thinning of the walls;
  • seals in the form of nodules;
  • full of foul-smelling liquid feces with a large number of parasites.

Infection of chickens occurs as a result of ingestion of invasive eggs along with water or feed. After 1-2 hours, in the small intestine, larvae emerge from the eggs, which enter the cecum a day later.

After the larvae enter the lumen of the cecum (after 6-12 days), they are introduced into the thickness of the mucous membrane, and it is injured. The result is necrosis of the epithelium of the mucous membrane, swelling of the lymphoid tissue.

Pathological changes
Pathological changes
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Image

Diagnostics

The diagnosis is based on the presence of Heterakis eggs in the stool. On postmortem examination, adult nematodes are visible in the small intestine. On the mucous membrane of the cecum, many small nodules are formed, which remain after the life of the larvae.

Often, pathological lesions of the liver with a diameter of 3-10 mm are found. Their cause is infection with protozoa Histomonas meleagridis.

The NITA-FARM company proposes to use one of its own drugs to combat heterokydosis. Both products have been field tested and scientifically proven to be effective.

  • Alvet. It is based on albendazole, a safe substance that quickly destroys the main types of helminths, including heterokis and ascaris. The drug is produced in the form of flavored granules. After being eaten, it is rapidly absorbed into the digestive tract, penetrates into other organs, and is excreted in the bile. "Alvet" is used for 2 days, mixing with compound feed in the morning feeding at a dose of 0.5 g / 10 kg of bird weight.
  • Ivermek OR. It is based on ivermectin and vitamin E. It has a complex effect on various ecto- and endoparasitosis of birds. Destroys adults and larvae. The bird is watered once. The drug is administered with drinking water at the rate of 0.4 ml / 1 l of water or 0.4 ml / 10 kg of body weight.

Prevention

  • During the period from spring to autumn, you need to regularly deworm the bird. For these purposes, you can use the drugs "Alvet" and "Ivermek OR".
  • The premises where livestock are kept must be periodically cleaned of droppings.
  • It is necessary to monitor the humidity in the premises, maintaining it within the normal range.

Treatment

Phenothiazine and carbon tetrachloride are used for deworming birds with heterokidosis.

Phenothiazine is prescribed as a group method after a 12-16 hour fasting diet. A single dose of the drug per head: for chickens 0.3-0.5; adult chickens 1.0-1.5; ducklings 0.4-0.6; ducks 1.5-2.0; goslings 0.6-0.9, geese 2.0-4.0. It is better to use phenothiazine in a mixture with piperazine by the method of group feeding in fractional doses together with a wet forage mash.

Carbon tetrachloride is injected through a thin rubber tube into the cloaca once in the following doses (per head): 2-4 ml for chickens; chickens 2-3 months old 1 ml; turkeys 6-12 ml; guinea fowls 1-2 ml; ducks 3-5 ml; geese 4-10 ml. The need for individual administration of this drug to birds sharply limits its industrial use.

Piperazine is sometimes prescribed in the form of salts (piperazine sulfate, piperazine phosphate, piperazine citrate, piperazine adipate) to chickens at doses of 0.3-0.5, adult chickens 1.0 per head twice for two days in a row or every other day group method (mixed with food). For the preparation of the feed mixture of the drug, feed is used, rub, bran in an amount for chickens 20 g, for ducks 30 g and for geese 50 g.

A group dose of piperazine is mixed in a bucket or box (trough) with a feed rate reduced by 1/4, after which the mixture is moistened to the consistency of a thick porridge and stirred again. This mixture is given to the bird from narrow troughs during the morning feeding. The number of birds of the same age and weight in one group can be up to 500 chickens and ducks and up to 300 geese.

In case of mixed invasion (heterocytosis + ascariasis), the imported drug Nilverm (0.04-0.08 g / kg) can be used with feed. After deworming, the bird is kept indoors for 3-5 days. The excrement with parasites released during these days is burned or disinfected in a biothermal way.

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