The Simplest Worms In Children And Adults, Cats And Dogs, The Eggs Of The Simplest Worms

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The Simplest Worms In Children And Adults, Cats And Dogs, The Eggs Of The Simplest Worms
The Simplest Worms In Children And Adults, Cats And Dogs, The Eggs Of The Simplest Worms

Video: The Simplest Worms In Children And Adults, Cats And Dogs, The Eggs Of The Simplest Worms

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Video: Natural Ways To Get Rid Of Intestinal Worms In No Time 2023, January

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  • Giardia

    • The structure and biology of lamblia
    • Giardia life cycle
    • Giardia pathogenicity
    • Classification and symptoms of giardiasis
  • Leishmania

    • Leishmania structure
    • Leishmania life cycle
    • Leishmania development cycle
    • Leishmania symptoms
    • Leishmania species
  • Trypanosomatids

    • What is trypanosome
    • Trypanosome life cycle
    • Reproduction
    • Diseases caused by trypanosoma
  • Amoeba dysentery

    • The structure of the dysentery amoeba
    • The life cycle of a dysentery amoeba
    • Dysentery amoeba cyst
    • Invasive stage of dysentery amoeba
    • Tissue form of dysentery amoebae
    • Diagnostics
  • Trichomonas

    • General information
    • Biological features of the causative agent of trichomoniasis
  • The simplest worms in cats
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • You can defeat parasites!

The simplest parasites can have a body of constant shape (ciliates and flagellates) and changeable - a bright representative of the amoeba. Their sizes are quite small and range from 4-5 micrometers to 1-3 millimeters.

Often, the cell of these microorganisms has several nuclei. Pseudopods, cilia and flagella act as organs of movement. The reproduction process, depending on the species, occurs by dividing in half or by a complex sexual method. However, these parasites are not related to worms.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

The main types of protozoan worms in children and adults include:

  • Giardia
  • Leishmania
  • Trypanosomatids
  • Amoeba dysentery
  • Trichomonas


The structure and biology of lamblia

Length Giardia is about 10-25 microns, it has a flagellum and 4 double set of chromosomes, the two medial body. They also have a special suction disc, with which they are fixed on the villi of the human small intestine and feed on the host's digested food through pinocytosis, that is, lamblia absorbs nutrients from the environment with its entire cell surface.

What do lamblia look like
What do lamblia look like

Giardia belongs to anaerobes, that is, oxygen is absolutely not needed for their growth and reproduction. Their number in the intestine can exceed a million per 1 cm 2 of the mucous membrane of the small intestine. They can also form cysts, they are oval in shape and contain two nuclei, they are formed mainly in the large intestine of the host.

Giardia life cycle

Giardia multiply by longitudinal division, their growth and reproduction occurs in the small intestine, and the formation of cysts in the large intestine. Through excrement, only cysts enter the environment, if the stool is liquid, then new parasites that have formed during division can also be found in it, they are called trophozoites.

Cysts perform the distribution function in lamblia. Giardia cysts can survive in the external environment for up to 65 days, in the presence of a moisturizing factor. In the summer, lamblia cysts can survive in wastewater for up to 3-4 months. For this reason, giardiasis is one of the causes of the phenomenon known as "traveler's diarrhea", as they use unboiled freshwater water.

In tap or pond water, lamblia cysts persist for 1-3 months, this is at a water temperature in the range from 4 to 20 ° C. The addition of chlorine to the water, which is recommended for bacterial disinfection of water, does not lead to the death of lamblia cysts.

Infection can occur through the fecal-oral route if cysts fall into human water or food. When a Giardia cyst enters the human stomach with water or food, its protective membrane dissolves. As a result, the vegetative form of the parasite "hatches" from the cyst. For a person to develop giardiasis, only ten cysts are enough.

Giardia pathogenicity

The vital activity of these parasites is accompanied by the release of many toxins into the internal environment of the human body, which simply poisons it from the inside. Giardiasis can be accompanied by dysfunctions of the liver, intestines, gallbladder, cause some disorders of the nervous system, various allergic reactions.

Treatment of giardiasis
Treatment of giardiasis

The attachment of lamblia to the intestinal mucosa interferes with its ability to absorb fats and carbohydrates, disrupt parietal digestion, and affects its secretory, motor function. Large colonies of lamblia can have harmful mechanical effects and irritate the intestinal epithelium.

Most often, asymptomatic carriage of this pathogen is found. Clinical manifestations are very rare. Younger children are more susceptible to infection with this parasite. Infection occurs only through contact with a sick person.

Classification and symptoms of giardiasis

The clinical manifestations of giardiasis are very diverse, which makes the disease difficult to recognize. The disease is often latent and asymptomatic. The severity of manifestations occurs only with massive infection.

The most appropriate classification of the disease is as follows:

  1. Giardia carrier (asymptomatic form);
  2. Giardiasis (form with pronounced manifestations):
  3. Intestinal form.
  4. Hepatobiliary form.
  5. Giardiasis as a concomitant pathology.

A significant part of children infested with lamblia do not notice any complaints, and disorders associated with the disease can only be detected by instrumental and laboratory studies. The incidence of asymptomatic subclinical giardiasis is 25-50%.

Intestinal manifestations of giardiasis are most common among children. Manifested in the form of gastritis, duodenitis and enteritis. The severity of symptoms depends both on the massiveness of the invasion and on the general condition of the body.

Children complain of belching, heartburn, pain in the epigastric region, pain of a sharp nature, accompanied by nausea, not associated with food intake. Characterized by unstable stool, frequent diarrhea, followed by persistent constipation. Sometimes foaming stools up to 5 times a day.

With a long-term illness with severe intestinal dysbiosis, manifestations of colitis occur - inflammation of the large intestine. Added to the above symptoms are bloating, rumbling, lower abdominal pain, and mucus-laden feces.

The hepatobiliary form is manifested by symptoms of cholecystitis. Typical for older children and adolescents. Patients report pain in the right hypochondrium, a feeling of bitterness in the mouth and a bitter belching. Palpation of the projection of the gallbladder is painful, gallbladder symptoms are positive.

As a result of duodenal intubation, it is possible to establish the symptoms of dyskinetic disorders of the biliary system, with spasm or atony of the gallbladder sphincter. Ultrasound examination also indicates hypo- and hypertonicity of the sphincter, the phenomenon of cholestasis.

Long-term disease with giardiasis is accompanied by fever, weakness, apathy, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, pain in the heart.

In addition to all these symptoms and syndromes, the following can be observed: neuroses, pallor of the skin (especially the nose and face) with a normal hemoglobin content in the blood, lining of the tongue, dry and peeling lips, weight loss, loss of appetite, steatorrhea. In a blood test, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis are observed.

In general, the clinical picture of giardiasis is wavy in nature.


Leishmania is the causative agent of protozoal infection, which causes damage to the outer covers or internal organs (disease - leishmaniasis).

Leishmania is a family of trypanosomids (from the order of protomonadids), a class of flagellates, a type of protozoa. It is an intracellular parasitic microorganism that develops in the body of certain insects, and through them is transmitted to humans or animals.

Leishmanias are recognized as causative agents of internal and cutaneous leishmaniasis - a severe infectious disease occurring with ulcerative damage to the skin and / or internal organs.


Leishmania structure

Leishmania can be presented in two forms - intracellular amastigote and promastigote (flagellate form).

Amastigote has rounded outlines, from 2.5 to 5 microns in diameter, located in the middle of the parasitophore vacuole of the macrophage. There is a clearly defined nucleus and kinetonucleus, it is distinguished by vacuolated cytoplasm and the presence of lysosomes. The outer membrane contains a polysaccharide component, but without the glycocalyx layer.

A promastigote is the presence of a well-defined flagellum. The outer membrane contains binding molecules like glycoproteins and special cells of the immune system called manose receptors. All this plays an important role in the penetration into the macrophage. This process is facilitated by the binding of plasma antibodies to the promastigote.

Leishmanias are located in the cellular protoplasm of internal organs - it can be the liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, as well as skin and mucous membranes, capillaries, etc. The affected cell can contain from one to two hundred Leishmanias.

Leishmania structure
Leishmania structure

Leishmania life cycle

Leishmanias are representatives of trypanosomatids, which means that they belong to obligate parasites. The life cycle of Leishmania is determined by the presence of two successive hosts: an insect and a vertebrate.

Insect infection with Leishmania occurs when they suck the blood of the host animal. Parasites with blood enter the insect's digestive organ: while in the middle intestine along the perimeter of the swallowed blood, the insect forms the so-called. peritrophic matrix.

The promastigous form of the parasite reproduces in the digestive organ of female insects. After about 7 days, the infection reaches the upper part of the digestive system.

In this case, Leishmanias completely block the female's digestive organ. When an insect bites a mammal, its saliva, together with accumulations of parasites, penetrate the site of the bite into the skin of the new host.

As a rule, neutrophils rush to the site of damage - immune blood cells that capture parasites. Parasites exist inside the cells until the natural death of neutrophils comes.

Leishmania development cycle

Having settled inside the human body or in the body of other mammals, Leishmania can be localized in the bloodstream and in the outer covers. Mosquitoes or mosquitoes suck blood particles from a sick animal or person and are affected by Leishmania.

Already on the first day, the swallowed flagellate parasite transforms into a mobile flagellate form. It passes into the stage of reproduction and after about a week, in the form of clusters, it appears in the upper sections of the insect's digestive tract.

With the bite of an infected insect, active Leishmania penetrate into a microscopic wound, and from there into the cellular structures of the skin, or with blood flow to the internal organs: this depends on the type of Leishmania (cutaneous or visceral leishmania).

Leishmania cutaneous - at the site of an insect bite, leishmania begins to multiply and form nodules (leishmanias), which are infiltrates containing macrophages, endothelial cells and lymphoid tissue, as well as fibroblasts. Subsequently, the nodes die off, and in their place an ulcerative process forms with signs of edema and keratinization: after healing, the ulcer is replaced by scar tissue.

Visceral leishmania - a node is formed at the site of an insect bite, from which parasites with blood flow are distributed to all internal organs (spleen, lymph nodes, liver, etc.).

There the formation of secondary foci of the spread of infection occurs, which leads to a proliferative change in the tissues of the organ, hyperplasia with the further development of the dystrophic and necrotic process.

Leishmania symptoms

Symptoms of Leishmania may differ from geographic area, but some clinical manifestations are common in all regions. Among the local population, the most vulnerable are children under 5 years of age. Visitors can get sick regardless of age category.

Leishmania symptoms
Leishmania symptoms

The disease begins gradually or acutely. The most common symptom is prolonged intermittent fever, accompanied by chills, fever, and frequent rises and falls in temperature.

The spleen and liver are enlarged and hardened. The defeat of the large intestine reveals itself in the form of diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome.

There is anemia and thrombocytopenia, which indicates damage to the bone marrow. A characteristic rash - leishmanoids - may appear on the skin. In the future, it is possible to add a purulent infection, the development of sepsis, a syndrome of increased bleeding or thrombus formation, the appearance of oral ulcers.

Leishmania visceral often manifests itself after 3-10 months from the moment of infection. The painful condition begins with weakness, fatigue, pain in the head and muscles. Further, there is increased sweating (at night), dyspeptic disorders, signs of anemia.

In childhood, the disease is more severe and can be fatal within a few months. In adult patients, the disease can last for several years.

Cutaneous leishmania can develop 1-6 months after infection. At first, a progressive node (1-1.5 cm) appears on the skin, which subsequently turns into an ulcerative process.

The nodes can spread and also gradually progress to the ulcer stage. Ulcers heal extremely slowly (up to several months), after healing, scar tissue remains. In addition to the nodes, the formation of papules like acne is possible.

Leishmania species

Three types of Leishmania are identified that tend to parasitize the human body:

  • Leishmania of the tropics - provokes the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This type of parasite was identified back in the 19th century by the physician and scientist P. Borovsky;
  • Brazilian leishmania - was first discovered in regions of South America and provokes the development of mucocutaneous (American leishmaniasis);
  • leishmania donovani - affects the internal organs, provoking the development of the visceral form of the disease. In turn, leishmania donovani can be subdivided into Mediterranean and Indian kala azar, depending on the geographic location of the focus of infection.


At the beginning of the 20th century, the Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas announced the existence of a unicellular organism of the class of flagellates of the genus trypanosoma, capable of causing serious diseases in humans and animals, and gave it the name trypanosome cruzi in honor of the explorer Osvaldo Cruz.

Later, two more forms of endemic microorganisms were added to the classification of protozoa - Rhodesian and Gambiens, common in East and West Africa.


What is trypanosome

We are talking about unicellular parasites, whose habitat is mammals and insects are carriers. The insidiousness of the microorganism lies in the presence of a defense mechanism against the immunity of humans and animals.

By hitting the host's organism, he knows how to timely activate the genes that hide it from the immune system, thereby gaining time for reproduction. Deadly for humans and other vertebrates.

If the parasite plays a negative role in human life, causing serious illness and death, then in nature it is an important factor in natural selection that regulates the number of other animal species. In addition, unicellular flagellates participate in the life cycle of termites, temporarily settling in their intestines and helping the host to digest fiber.

An adult, being in the body of an insect or a person, is one longitudinally elongated mitochondrial cell 12-70 microns in size. Inside it consists of a cytoplasm, a nucleus, a disc-shaped DNA-containing kinetoplast, a kinetosome - a small formation from which the flagellum originates.

The undulating membrane, together with the flagellum, performs a motor function: the latter stretches along the entire cell body and lifts the membrane, it bends and propels the cell in the desired direction. From above, the cell is covered with a dense glycoprotein membrane.

Trypanosome life cycle

Trypanosome activity is manifested in the organisms of insects and mammals, it cannot exist in other environments. The parasite enters the digestive tract of the carrier after the latter has bitten an infected animal, remains there for about 20 days, gradually developing and moving to the insect's salivary glands.

The host bites the victim, mature individuals pass to a new host - a person or an animal. For 10 days, the parasite is under the host's skin, then with blood it gets to the internal organs. Reproducing, it damages tissues and poisons the body as a whole.


During a bite, a person receives a small number of parasites, their number increases in the tissues of the body. Reproduction of trypanosome occurs asexually, the process is called longitudinal division.

The flagellate class includes several dozen species of parasites. They differ from each other in the length of their life cycles, natural reproduction reservoirs, carriers and the degree of pathogenicity for mammals, but they have similar structures, methods of reproduction and life cycles.

Some types of parasite can cause dangerous pathologies in humans:

  • Trypanosoma brucei gambience - has a size of 17-28 microns, distributed in West Africa. It is carried by the tsetse fly, which lives near people's dwellings, horse camps. Affects humans, dogs, pigs, settles in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord;
  • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience is the causative agent of severe, transient forms of disease. Carrier - tsetse fly, habitat region - East Africa. It affects cattle and humans;
  • Trypanosoma Cruzi - common in South and Central America, carried by triatomaceous bugs. The parasite enters a bug bite wound or a scratched skin if it is contaminated with bug feces. Affects the liver, spleen, heart, muscles and neurons of a person;
  • Trypanosoma eouipedum (equine) - affects horses and other domestic animals. The result of the lesion is the so-called equine equine disease, since the parasite spreads further during mating.

Diseases caused by trypanosoma

Several varieties of the parasite cause dangerous pathologies in humans. Some of them are chronic, others are rapid, and both are highly fatal.

Infection can occur in areas of cultural landscapes, natural nature. More often, the causative agent of sleeping sickness overtakes hunters, tourists, seasonal workers. The following types of diseases are common:

  • Sleeping sickness of the Gambian type is the result of a parasite of the Gambiens type. It is expressed by increasing muscle weakness, depression, exhaustion and drowsiness. Without treatment, it lasts about 5 years, ends in death;
  • Sleeping sickness of the Rhodesian type is more malignant and ends in death. A furuncle occurs at the site of the bite, a fever begins, accompanied by a severe headache. If untreated, death occurs within 9-12 months.
  • Chagas disease is the result of an invasion of the body by a microorganism such as cruz. The onset of the disease may be asymptomatic. It is accompanied by inflammation of the heart muscle, the membranes of the brain, and the gastrointestinal tract. At a later stage, patients die from heart attacks, strokes, heart failure, in childhood - from meningoencephalitis. Death can be sudden.
Chagas disease
Chagas disease

Chagas disease

Amoeba dysentery

Dysentery amoeba is the simplest parasite that, getting inside a person, causes severe pathologies: amoebic dysentery and amoebic colitis. Like other amoebas, they have adapted to a parasitic existence inside a person in the large intestine, but under certain conditions they can cause a serious illness - amoebiasis.

Described for the first time in 1875 by the scientist Lesch, they are widespread throughout the globe, but inhabitants of tropical and subtropical countries are most susceptible to the disease. In other climatic zones, people are more likely to be carriers of dysentery amoeba, and outbreaks of amebiasis are quite rare.

Life cycle of a dysentery amoeba: scheme, stages and features of the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica
Life cycle of a dysentery amoeba: scheme, stages and features of the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

The structure of the dysentery amoeba

The structure of the dysentery amoeba is as follows: this is an individual that constantly changes its contours, measuring 20-30 microns, has a spherical nucleus inside the endoplasm - the internal content, is covered with ectoplasm - the outer layer of cellular cytoplasm, there is no skeleton, very mobile, moves with the help of peculiar processes called pseudopodia or pseudopods.

Its movement resembles a flow from one shape to another. There are luminal, tissue, large vegetative form of amoeba and in the form of cysts. The luminal size is about 20 microns, it is located in the lumen of the upper part of the large intestine, feeds on its bacteria and does not cause any harm to the host.

The life cycle of a dysentery amoeba

The life cycle of a dysentery amoeba begins when it enters the gastrointestinal tract. Ways of infection with dysentery amoeba are fecal-oral, household. Together with feces, cysts enter the environment, more than 300 million of them are released per day. They show great resistance to temperature extremes and other adverse influences.

Thus, cysts are able to survive for a month at a temperature of 20 ° C, for a week in a humid and darkened environment, up to a week in chilled food, for several months at negative values.

They get inside a person with dirty hands, unwashed products, contaminated water, through tactile contact with the hands of a sick person. They are carried by flies and cockroaches. The factors accompanying the development of pathology are pregnancy, protein deficiency, dysbiosis, worms - everything that reduces immunity.

Life cycle
Life cycle

Life cycle of amoeba

Dysentery amoeba cyst

Cysts of a dysentery amoeba appear from the vegetative after the acute phase of the disease subsides. Some of them turn into luminal, others, finding themselves in an environment of thickened feces, become smaller, covered with a membrane and encystised. They have 4 nuclei and are arranged in the same way as the nuclei of the vegetative form.

Immature cysts can have one to three nuclei. This is the most viable form of dysentery amoeba, able to survive in an unfavorable external environment and, once inside a person, resume the life cycle.

Invasive stage of dysentery amoeba

The invasive stage of dysentery amoeba is characterized by an incubation period that lasts up to two weeks. At this time, cysts move through the intestines. On the way of their advancement, they penetrate into its mucous membrane.

At the same time, the most susceptible to damage is the transverse colonic and descending sections of the large intestine. At this stage, moving, the cysts turn into a vegetative form, containing enzymes that are destructive for the intestinal walls - pepsin and trypsin. This helps the parasite to invade its layers, right down to the muscle layers, which becomes palpable for humans.

Tissue form of dysentery amoebae

The tissue form of dysentery amoeba is formed when the luminal is introduced into the intestinal wall. Until now, scientists have not figured out the reason why this is happening. But at this stage, the amoeba causes damage to the lining of the colon. It is this form of its existence that is found in patients with amoebiasis.

Reproducing, it provokes the formation of ulcers on the intestinal walls, which lead to the accumulation of pus, blood, mucus. Conditions are created for the transformation of luminal and tissue forms into a large vegetative one. They increase up to 30 microns and are able to absorb erythrocytes. Going outside, the vegetative form dies.

From the moment of damage to the walls, clinical symptoms of dysentery amoeba appear. Signs of acute amebiasis are increasing gradually with obvious dynamics. Initially, stool increases up to 4-6 times a day, feces of a liquid consistency with mucus, having a sharp and unpleasant odor.

Gradually, trips to the toilet are increasing and can reach 20 times, false desires for defecation appear, blood clots are found in the vitreous mucus. The body temperature rises to 38 ° C, which lasts for several days, the stomach is swollen and painful. Treatment of the disease can last up to a month and a half, but if it is not carried out, then remission occurs and the pathology becomes chronic.

Its symptoms are expressed in a white bloom on the tongue, bad breath, poor appetite, weight loss, signs of vitamin deficiency (hair loss, brittle nails, pale skin), abdominal pain. Over time, disorders of the heart and liver may appear.


Diagnostics is carried out according to the method from simple to more complex and is initially based on the patient's story about the symptoms: the frequency and nature of the stool, pain, the dynamics of the development of the disease, and the temperature is also measured.

Further material is taken for laboratory research. If it is not possible to obtain feces for this, biopsies are taken using endoscopy, and the intestinal walls are examined for damage and the presence of ulcers. As additional methods, they resort to ultrasound of the kidneys and abdominal organs to assess their condition.


Trichomoniasis (trichomoniasis) is a genital infection that causes inflammation of the organs of the genitourinary system. It is manifested by signs of colpitis, urethritis, cystitis, proctitis. Often combined with other genital infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, mycoplasma, candidiasis, etc.

In the acute stage, there is abundant vaginal discharge, itching and burning sensation in women, and soreness during urination in men. In the absence of adequate treatment, it becomes chronic and can subsequently cause prostatitis, infertility, complicated pregnancy and childbirth, childhood pathology and mortality.


General information

Trichomoniasis (or trichomoniasis) urogenital is a disease exclusively of the human urogenital system. The causative agent of trichomoniasis is vaginal (vaginal) Trichomonas, a sexually transmitted infection.

The target organs of trichomoniasis in men are the urethra, prostate, testes and their appendages, seminal vesicles, and in women - the vagina, the vaginal part of the cervical canal, and the urethra. Vaginal Trichomonas in women is found more often due to more pronounced manifestations of trichomoniasis and more frequent visits to the doctor for preventive purposes.

Basically, women of reproductive age from 16 to 35 years old get sick with trichomoniasis. During childbirth, infection with trichomoniasis of a newborn from a sick mother occurs in about 5% of cases. In newborns, trichomoniasis is mild due to the structural features of the epithelium and is capable of self-healing.

In men, usually, the presence of Trichomonas does not cause obvious symptoms of trichomoniasis, they are often carriers of Trichomonas and, without experiencing obvious discomfort, transmit the infection to their sexual partners.

Trichomoniasis infection mainly occurs through sexual intercourse. In everyday life - through contaminated linen, towels, swimwear, trichomoniasis is extremely rare.

The number of diseases associated with trichomoniasis is large. Trichomoniasis is often detected with other STI pathogens (gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasma, candida fungi, herpes viruses). Currently, it is believed that Trichomonas contribute to the development of diabetes, mastopathy, allergies and even cancer.

Biological features of the causative agent of trichomoniasis

The causative agents of trichomoniasis are Trichomonas (Type Protozoa, Family Flagella) - unicellular anaerobic organisms - parasites, widespread in nature. In the human body, 3 types of Trichomonas parasitize: vaginal (the largest, active, pathogenic), oral and intestinal.

Thanks to the flagella, Trichomonas are very active and mobile. Trichomonas are asexual and omnivorous, multiply rapidly under optimal conditions - in the absence of oxygen and at t = 35-37 ° C.

Trichomonas are fixed in the cells of the mucous membrane of the genitourinary tract and cause an inflammatory process there. The waste products of Trichomonas poison the human body, reduce its immunity.

Trichomonas in women: symptoms, causes and methods of treatment
Trichomonas in women: symptoms, causes and methods of treatment

Trichomonas can live in the genitals and even in the bloodstream, where they penetrate through the lymphatic pathways, the intercellular spaces with the help of an enzyme - hyaluronidase.

Trichomonas are extremely adapted to exist in the human body: they can change shape, disguise themselves as blood plasma cells (platelets, lymphocytes) - which makes it difficult to diagnose trichomoniasis; To "hook" on other microbes and in this way to evade the body's immune attack.

Microorganisms (gonococci, ureaplasma, chlamydia, fungi of the genus Candida, herpes viruses, cytomegalovirus), getting inside Trichomonas, find there protection from the action of drugs and the human immune system.

Mobile Trichomonas can carry other microbes through the genitourinary system and blood vessels. By damaging the epithelium, Trichomonas reduce its protective function, and facilitate the penetration of microbes and sexually transmitted viruses (including HIV).

Although modern venereology possesses effective drug methods for treating most genital infections, it is extremely difficult to get rid of trichomoniasis completely, even today. The fact is that the non-protein shell of Trichomonas does not respond to the action of antibiotics and can only be destroyed by special antiprotozoal drugs.

The simplest worms in cats

If the cat suddenly has diarrhea, the main thing for the owner is to help the pet get better as soon as possible. But when a doctor talks about the infectious nature of a disease, it is difficult for an ordinary person to understand the difference between viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Conditionally infectious diseases are divided into parasitic (invasive) and infectious. The simplest are unicellular parasites.

Diseases of cats caused by protozoa are called protozoa. Most of them are dangerous to humans.


The main, final host of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite is a cat, and the intermediate can be rodents, farm animals and even humans, which makes the disease especially dangerous. A person can become infected with toxoplasmosis not only from a cat, but also by eating poorly cooked meat and other contaminated foods.



A cat becomes infected by eating an intermediate host of Toxoplasma, most often a mouse. Together with feces, the oocysts of the parasite begin to be released into the external environment. If they are swallowed by an intermediate host, the so-called sporozoites emerge from the oocyst, which infect the internal organs, actively multiplying in their cells. Tissue cysts are formed, the final stage in the development of Toxoplasma in the body of the intermediate host.

Toxoplasmosis is recorded on all continents. The presence of natural foci and periodic outbreaks of the disease are characteristic. In Russia, it is found in St. Petersburg, in the Leningrad region.

Toxoplasma is released from a sick animal everywhere:

  • with saliva;
  • discharge from the eyes, nose, genitals;
  • with urine and faeces.

Symptoms of the acute form of toxoplasmosis appear 2-3 days after infection:

  • In females - an abortion in the first half of pregnancy, the birth of an unviable offspring, kittens with congenital malformations (hydrocephalus, underdevelopment of the limbs).
  • Increase in body temperature to 41 ° C, strong tremors and depression (the cat does not eat or drink).
  • Conjunctivitis and purulent rhinitis.
  • Persistent diarrhea with discharge of blood and mucus, vomiting, abdominal pain on palpation.
  • Mucous membranes are pale or cyanotic.
  • Tachycardia and rapid breathing.
  • Convulsions, paralysis.

The acute form of the disease can lead to death. The chronic course is characterized by emaciation of the animal, diarrhea, unstable appetite and fever. In cats, toxoplasmosis can even run latently, without causing any symptoms.

This disease is caused by different types of protozoa. Isospora bigeminum, felis, rivolta, cati parasitize in cats.

Infected animals shed immature oocysts in the faeces. They must "mature" in the external environment within 3-4 days, after which they become infectious. No intermediate host is required. Oocysts remain dangerous for up to 2 years, are resistant to disinfectants, so the disease is widespread.

Isosporosis symptoms appear one week after infection:

  • Diarrhea with secretion of mucus and blood, a characteristic feature of orange or red feces.
  • The abdomen is painful and tense.
  • Decreased or complete lack of appetite.
  • Oppression, lethargy.
  • Polyuria, urine dark, with an unpleasant odor.
  • Severe dehydration and exhaustion.
  • Temperature rise (not always).

Without laboratory tests, the doctor may confuse the acute form of isosporosis with panleukopenia or poisoning.

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