Hepatic Worms In Humans, Cows And Birds: Symptoms And Treatment

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Hepatic Worms In Humans, Cows And Birds: Symptoms And Treatment
Hepatic Worms In Humans, Cows And Birds: Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Hepatic Worms In Humans, Cows And Birds: Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: What is Fasciolopsiasis ( Fasciola Infections ) 2023, February
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Page content

  • Types of parasites
  • Ascaris in the liver
  • Specificity of opisthorchiasis
  • Liver symptoms
  • How does infection occur

    What are the ways of infection

  • Clinical picture
  • Diagnostics and treatment of hepatic helminthiasis
  • On the inadmissibility of self-medication

    Alternative treatment

  • What to do if all else fails
  • Hepatic worms in cows
  • Basically gastrointestinal roundworms (nematodes)

    • Genus Bunostomum
    • Genus Cooperia
    • Genus Gongylonema
  • Hepatic worms in broilers
  • Specificity of the disease
  • Varieties of helminths and a list of symptoms
  • You can defeat parasites!

A person lives in a huge ecosystem, together with him live in the same territory, both large animals and very tiny ones. Microorganisms always accompany a person, wherever he is.

Of course, there are both beneficial bacteria and parasites, which include helminths. Many people think that they in the body most often affect the intestines, and in fact parasites can take root in any organ, helminths in the liver are especially dangerous.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Types of parasites

There are many varieties of parasites that can infect the human body, and if this happens, you cannot do without treatment aimed at destroying them.

However, before starting therapy, it is important to determine the type of worms:

Ascaris. Even one worm can cause serious consequences, namely, provoke necrosis or abscess

Ascaris
Ascaris
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Schistosomes. They can lead to hepatitis, in the absence of timely treatment, cirrhosis of the liver develops

Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis
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Opisthorchia. They do not exceed 2 cm in size, while ascaris can be about 40 cm.The gallbladder is affected, blood circulation is disturbed, the temperature rises, if they enter the liver, they disrupt its functions and can lead to hepatitis

Opisthorchis
Opisthorchis
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Single-chamber echinococcus. Affects the bile ducts and blood vessels

Echinococcus
Echinococcus
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Echinococcus

Alveolar echinococcus. It can develop in the human body up to 10 years, provokes the development of malignant tumors in a number of tissues and organs adjacent to the liver

Ascaris in the liver

Ascaris can be considered one of the most dangerous types of liver parasites. Diagnosis of ascariasis is complicated by the fact that the symptoms of pathology differ little from cholecystitis.

Most patients, as well as with inflammation of the gallbladder, experience nausea, and with vomiting, roundworms can leave. With the penetration of helminths into the biliary tract, jaundice develops.

The body shape of the roundworm is fusiform, the length of the female reaches several tens of centimeters, the males are slightly smaller. Usually, adult females parasitize the human small intestine. The question of how roundworms penetrate into the liver is still a controversial one.

Ascaris
Ascaris
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Ascaris

Scientists speculate that the embryo leaves the egg in the intestines and damages the shell. With the blood flow in the portal vein, the larva enters the liver, spreads through the blood vessels to the heart, lungs and bronchi. Neurotoxins secreted by roundworms cause weakness, dizziness, sore throat, runny nose, itching in the nose.

Ascariasis symptoms are non-specific:

  • pain in the right upper abdomen;
  • bluish circles under the eyes;
  • rash on the skin, itching;
  • diarrhea;
  • vomiting.

Anthelmintics for intestinal and liver damage with roundworms are used with great caution. Such drugs cause massive death and migration of parasites, which is dangerous due to severe intoxication and penetration of larvae into deeply located bile ducts.

Treatment of liver ascariasis is surgical. In the absence of medical care, the patient's lungs are affected, the immune system suffers, signs of intoxication of the whole organism appear.

The larvae that penetrate the brain and back cause various disorders of the central nervous system. Possible complications of ascariasis include liver necrosis and abscess. In the case of perforation of the intestinal membrane, peritonitis may develop.

Specificity of opisthorchiasis

Small flukes, belonging to the genus Opisthorchis, affect the liver and bile ducts. Dangerous worms destroy liver tissue, absorb biologically active substances, produce toxins that suppress immunity. Allergic reactions and biliary colic are associated with fluke infection.

The cat fluke is leaf-shaped, up to 1.8 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. It is found in river basins from China to the Volga. Opisthorchiasis can be infected by eating fish, meat of domestic and wild animals that feed on fish. The average incubation time is 28 days. The immature fluke migrates into the bile ducts and develops to puberty.

Opisthorchis
Opisthorchis
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Opisthorchis

The onset of opisthorchiasis is rapid. After a week, the symptoms of the acute stage may disappear without treatment. A chronic disease is characterized by exacerbations and complications. The main symptoms of opisthorchiasis:

  • abdominal pain and other manifestations of dyspepsia;
  • fever;
  • an increase in the size of the liver;
  • yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes.

Fascioliasis is caused by flukes from the genus Fasciola. The body, resembling a leaf in shape, has a length of up to 3 cm and a width of about 1 cm. Infection occurs when contaminated water enters the stomach: during bathing, when using it for watering and washing greens, fruits.

Fasciola larvae enter the liver and gallbladder from the intestines. At an early stage, symptoms of an allergic disease appear. The temperature rises, abdominal pains occur, the liver enlarges. Adult helminths injure the bile ducts, disrupt the outflow of bile.

Fluke eggs come out with stool. Blood tests reveal eosinophilia. Treatment consists of taking a medication with the active ingredient praziquantel. The patient needs to take adsorbents, enzyme and choleretic drugs.

Without therapy, the patient develops purulent cholangitis, gallbladder dyskinesia and gastroduodenitis. Later, fibrosis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension may appear. The most serious complication of opisthorchiasis is cholangiocarcinoma.

Liver symptoms

Worms that live in the human liver cause the following symptoms of the disease:

  • an icteric shade of mucous membranes and skin, pronounced itching of the skin, which can be confused with allergic;
  • dyspeptic disorders: nausea, vomiting, indigestion;
  • soreness and pathological enlargement of the liver - hepatomegaly;
  • general weakness, a feeling of weakness, deterioration in performance, sleep disorders, bad mood, learning disabilities;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium, as a rule, of a dull periodic nature.

Very often a person has a rash. It is not diagnosed in all cases, but its appearance is the result of an allergic mechanism for the development of helminthic invasions, which, when the process is chronic, cause a process of hypersensitivity to its poisons and toxins in the body.

As a rule, the increase in temperature in this case is of a long-term nature as a subfebrile condition, that is, the temperature can increase to 37–37.5 ° C.

These were common signs of parasites in the liver, how they affect the organ in aggregate, we will consider in the table.

Type of helminthiasis How does the disease manifest
ECHINOCOCCOSIS With this disease, several cystic formations containing parasites are formed in the liver. The disease lasts for a long time, then causes general symptoms. The cysts gradually enlarge, causing a lot of discomfort in the patient. Large cysts require surgical treatment.
ASCARIDOSIS The causative agent of the disease usually lives in the intestines, roundworms in the liver are usually migratory. They create eosinophilic infiltrates in the tissues of the organ. People complain of itching and skin rashes.
OPISTORKHOZ Trematodes or opisthorchis parasitize in the ducts of the liver and gallbladder. They cause cholangiohepatitis, which occurs with abdominal pain, signs of jaundice and low-grade fever.
STRONGYLOIDOSIS The presence of these worms in the liver provokes organ damage with dyskinesia of the biliary system. Signs: loss of appetite, bitterness in the mouth, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes, pain in the hypochondrium.

Perhaps the most painful form of the disease among all the others.

LAMBLIOSIS Giardia causes biliary dyskinesia. Signs: pain in the hypochondrium, nausea, jaundice.
AMEBIASIS The disease proceeds as an acute form of hepatitis. The liver increases in size, abscesses form in its tissues. Signs: fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, damage to organ tissues with the prospect of developing cirrhosis.
BALANTIDIASIS Ciliates lead to a painful reaction of the liver to palpation, diarrhea streaked with blood and mucus, dehydration, fever and other unpleasant symptoms.

If there is no proper treatment, the disease quickly becomes a chronic process. In this case, a malfunction of the central nervous system occurs, a person begins to complain of increased frequency of headaches, dizziness, and increased irritability.

In an advanced case, there may be increased sweating, tremors of the eyelids, hands and tongue. Being in this state, not all doctors suspect a patient's helminthic invasion as the root cause of the disease, and they treat neuroses, vegetative-vascular dystonia and other diseases.

How does infection occur

To settle in the human body - a child or an adult, and in the future, affect the liver, worms can in the following ways:

  • in the process of contact with the ground, since the eggs of nematodes, liver flukes, ascaris and pinworms can live in the soil substrate, as a result of which they easily enter the human body along with poorly washed vegetables and fruits, through bare feet and dirty hands;
  • with direct interaction with an infected person, for example, pinworms are easily transmitted in a team through household items, such as bedding, or dirty hands;
  • from pets - through saliva, wool, contact with feces, etc.;
  • when using obviously unboiled infected water, the liver fluke, nematodes and other helminths can be transmitted;
  • with improperly processed food, for example, a violation of the cooking process of fish, cutlets or undercooked kebabs, as well as recently popular rolls and sushi - in this case, parasites such as fluke, liver fluke, roundworms and echinococcus easily settle in the body of an infected person;
  • after an insect bite.

It's no secret that it is children who are most often carriers of helminthic invasions. It is not difficult to explain this: immunity in childhood is not sufficiently formed, the body continues to grow and develop, requiring a large amount of strength and energy.

How is infection with worms
How is infection with worms
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As a result, a weakened immune system, as well as age-related, weak acidity of gastric juice, in comparison with adults, makes the body more susceptible to various kinds of helminthic invasions.

In addition, from an early age, the child rushes to actively explore the world around him, and he tries to do this not only by touch with his hands, but also with the help of his mouth, tasting absolutely everything - both at home and on the street.

Even with the comprehensive care that most children are surrounded by, not all parents can teach a preschool child basic hygiene practices. Therefore, no one is immune from infection with worms in a family where there are small children.

What are the ways of infection

The main route of infection with worms is through the mouth, i.e. helminths enter the body with food intake. Most often it is not high-quality or poorly thermally processed fish. When drinking water from reservoirs and rivers, without boiling.

Cases of infection through pets (cats, dogs) are not uncommon, because parasites can live on the animal's fur. If pets are walking on the street, then it is worth regularly treating them with a special shampoo.

Damage to the liver by worms can occur in both adults and children. The latter are at risk, as they often drag dirty hands into their mouths, touch stray animals, etc.

Helminths in the liver cause happy changes that immediately affect human health. The body temperature rises, colic appears, red spots and other allergic reactions may pop up, these are only the main symptoms of the disease.

Clinical picture

The main symptoms of helminths that affect the liver in adults and children.

In adults:

  • Roundworms - weakness, headache, decreased pressure, nausea, itching near the anus.
  • Schistosomes - cough, hemoptysis, itching, muscle pain, headache.
  • Opisthorchia - lack of appetite, high fever, pain in the right hypochondrium.
  • Unicameral echinococcus - epigastric pain, dull and pulling pains, problems with food digestion.
  • Alveolar echinococcus - weight loss, pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea and vomiting, decreased performance.

In children:

  • Ascaris - the temperature rises to 38 C, the liver is enlarged on palpation, painful. Lymph nodes, larger than normal, dermatitis on the hands and feet. It is recommended to start drug therapy as soon as possible.
  • Schistosomas - allergies, such as urticaria, anemia, blood in the urine and feces. Symptoms are similar to amoebiasis.
  • Opisthorchia - a feeling of aches, hives, fever, pain in the stomach, vomiting.
  • Single-chamber echinococcus - Painful sensations in the chest, weakness, no appetite, nausea and vomiting.
  • Alveolar echinococcus - Diarrhea, poor appetite, vomiting, fatigue, jaundice.

The appearance of helminths is not immediately noticeable. In some, development in the liver occurs in a few days, while in others, there are species that may not cause any symptoms for several years.

If any signs appear, you must go to the doctor for a consultation and pass all the necessary tests. First of all, drug treatment should go, but for prevention, as well as to enhance the medicinal effect, a folk remedy can also be used.

Pumpkin seeds are a good prevention. Children up to 75 g per day, adults - 150 g. Eat on an empty stomach with the peel, it is in it that there are substances that will help get rid of worms.



Medicinal herb (tansy, wormwood, dandelion) also helps with disease. In the pharmacy you can buy a special collection of medicinal plants for worms.

Diagnostics and treatment of hepatic helminthiasis

Adult women and men, the elderly and children need to undergo differential diagnostics before prescribing a specific method of treatment. It is very difficult to find helminths in the liver, as they can migrate to other organs.

First you need to take an enzyme immunoassay. Also prescribed are ultrasound of the liver, endoscopy, liver biopsy, ultrasound of the bile ducts and gallbladder, general blood and urine tests, blood tests for liver enzymes. EGD, fecal ovum and occult blood analysis can be optionally recommended.

Principles of treatment for hepatic helminthiasis:

  1. Reception of funds that have a detrimental effect on parasites. The most effective drugs are Tinidazole, Nifuratel, Praziquantel, Albendazole, Mebendazole, Furazolidone, Levamisole, Piperazine, Pirantel. Dosages and duration of the course are determined individually, based on the type of helminthiasis.
  2. The use of antihistamines, enterosorbents, immunomodulators, multivitamin complexes. They help to eliminate the symptoms of helminthic invasions, remove the waste products of parasites and normalize the general condition of the patient.
  3. Reception of hepatoprotectors. They help to support the organ, prevent the development of complications in the form of cirrhosis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and DVP.
  4. Compliance with a diet. Pickles, sweets and any other foods that are difficult for the body to digest are removed from the menu.

With massive liver damage and the development of complications that are dangerous to human life, surgery may be prescribed. Most often, surgical procedures are used for amebiasis, echinococcosis and fascioliasis.

Using traditional methods in the presence of parasites in the liver is completely pointless. Decoctions and tinctures will not help remove helminths from the parenchyma. Homemade potions can be used only for preventive purposes.

On the inadmissibility of self-medication

The first rule of successful therapy is never to self-medicate. Indeed, the symptomatology may clearly indicate the fact that the liver is infected with a parasitic invasion. But only an experienced doctor will be able to correctly classify the symptoms of worms in the human liver.

Treatment (in the photo below you can see a schematic representation of cysts formed as a result of infection with echinococcus) cannot be the same for everyone. A number of drugs for helminthic invasions have many side effects, and if the patient himself attempts to treat, then the situation can end in disaster.

Tumor with echinococcosis
Tumor with echinococcosis
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Tumor with echinococcosis

Moreover, many patients try to choose hepatoprotectors themselves when they feel heaviness in the right hypochondrium. The reason for the discomfort is not at all directly in the pathologies of the liver, but in the fact of parasitic invasion.

Alternative treatment

In order to quickly cleanse the body of parasites at home, to normalize the work of the digestive tract, conservative treatment can be supplemented with folk remedies.

Using burdock rhizome. To eliminate the signs of intoxication of the body, as a result of which the liver will be better cleansed, you will need a teaspoon of burdock rhizome extract, which must be diluted in a glass of clean water and drunk in one gulp. Repeat 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 7 days.

Fir remedy. Fir extract has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, disinfectant and hepatoprotective effects. How to cleanse the liver of parasites with fir extract? Within a month, take 50 ml of the product daily, 3 times a day, previously diluted with clean water.

Tansy recipe. Effective liver cleansing at home with the help of folk remedies can be done using tansy. The unique composition of tansy can not only remove parasites from the liver, but also cope with the signs of cholecystitis and inflammatory changes that have arisen in the organ as a result of the parasitic activity of helminths and protozoa.



Tansy should be brewed in the calculation of a teaspoon of dry raw materials per 200 ml of water, consumed in 3 doses during the day. In addition, before going to bed, you can chew the crushed flowers of the plant and drink them with a glass of water. In the morning, it is necessary to supplement the treatment with the use of laxatives to accelerate the elimination of parasites and their waste products.

What to do if all else fails

Unfortunately, sometimes the cleansing of the liver from the worms parasitizing in its tissues is not always successful. In this case, the task of removing parasites from the liver turns into a laborious process that requires a lot of patience. You will need not only a specific pill for parasites or folk remedies, but also a diet and special cleansing procedures.

To get rid of parasites from the human liver, many techniques have been developed by many specialists in both official and non-traditional medicine. Consider the proven method of organ cleaning by Gennady Malakhov, Anatoly Malovichko and other specialists.

It is advisable to begin cleansing procedures from parasitic organisms in the liver before the onset of the full moon phase, from 10 to 13 days of the lunar cycle. Within 5 days, it is necessary to carry out water thermal procedures that have a relaxing effect: it can be an ordinary hot shower, bath, sauna or bath. The main condition for their implementation is that after the end of the procedure, it is necessary to rinse the body with cold water.



It is important to stick to a vegetarian diet during cleansing. It is recommended to drink plenty of water with the inclusion of apple and beet juice, which can be drunk separately or mixed.

Once a day, you need to do a cleansing enema, preferably in the morning. This course of treatment must be followed for at least 2 weeks, it can be combined with any type of drug or alternative therapy.

Hepatic worms in cows

Cows and other cattle, like all animals, are susceptible to helminthic infestations. Depending on the types of helminths themselves and the infectious load, diseases can be asymptomatic or lead to weight loss, milk yield and even the death of the entire herd, which has a large negative economic effect in animal husbandry.

However, helminthiasis is not always accompanied by characteristic symptoms and signs. It is important to take preventive measures to avoid spreading the infection. This is the best way to avoid serious consequences, since in case of serious damage to the body of cows with worms, sometimes the only way out is slaughter. Calves are more likely to show visible clinical signs.

Worms parasitizing in the body of cows and other cattle (cattle) are very diverse. Therefore, treatment and prevention methods may differ.

Basically gastrointestinal roundworms (nematodes)

Various types of nematodes often cause helminthiasis in cattle. All of them are similar in morphological characteristics, they affect the heart, lungs and other organs of animals.

Genus Bunostomum

Spread. It is more common in regions with warm and humid climates. The following species are parasitic in cattle: B. phlebotomum, B. trigonocephalum.

Bunostomum
Bunostomum
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Infection. The larvae penetrate the skin or by ingesting contaminated soil or water.

What does it look like? The body is grayish-whitish in color, 1 to 3 cm long. It is covered with cuticle.

Symptoms and Signs Diarrhea, dehydration, loss of appetite, weakness, weight loss and stunted growth, submandibular edema. The larvae, penetrating the skin and migrating under it, can cause dermatitis (itching, swelling, redness, thickening), hair loss, damage to the hooves. If the lungs are affected, coughing occurs.

Genus Cooperia

Spread. They are found everywhere. Main species: C. curticei, C. oncophora, C. pectinata, C. surnabada.

Infection. Through food or water, where helminth eggs can enter with contaminated feces.

What does it look like? The body is reddish, up to 10 mm, and females are larger than males. Covered with cuticles.

Cooperia
Cooperia
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Symptoms and Signs Typical clinical presentations are diarrhea (watery, green, or black) followed by dehydration and weight loss. Other signs are apathy, loss of appetite, anemia.

Genus Gongylonema

Spread. There are such types:

  • Gongylonema pulchrum - distributed throughout the world;
  • Gongylonema verrucosum - Found in parts of Asia, Australia, South Africa, and North America.

Infection. When eating dung beetles and cockroaches that feed on excrement.

What does it look like? Length - about 6 cm (males), 14 cm (females). The body has a yellowish-brownish-reddish color, covered with cuticles.

Gongylonema
Gongylonema
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Symptoms and Signs Slight inflammation of the esophagus or stomach lining. Often asymptomatic.

Hepatic worms in broilers

Chickens, like other types of poultry, are susceptible to helminthiasis. The most important reason for parasite infestation is violation of sanitary standards during maintenance. In addition, poultry can develop helminthiasis after consuming contaminated feed.

Specificity of the disease

Helminthiasis refers to an invasive disease, the source of which is helminths.

Most often, worms in chickens settle and continue their development in the following organs:

Parasites absorb blood from the internal tissues of an infected animal, cause deformation or rupture of the walls of organs. Toxic substances released by helminths poison and deplete the bird's body.

Useful information. Worms reproduce in a very short time - one individual of chicken roundworm brings 50,000,000 eggs every year.

Parasites contribute to weakening the immune system of a sick animal, which increases the likelihood of contracting a dangerous infection. Poultry begins to suffer from anemia, the meat quality indicator is significantly reduced.

Note! Since the larvae of the worms of diseased chickens enter the egg, when this type of animal product is consumed, the parasites are transmitted to humans.

Among the causes of worms are the following:

  • dampness of the soil in the room where the birds are bred;
  • rare replacement of flooring;
  • poor quality feed;
  • dirty water;
  • insect vectors of parasites;
  • animal carrier of parasites;
  • acquisition of sick birds;
  • refusal of quarantine.

Another source of worm infestation may be from a farmer who tends the birds by carrying them in through dirty shoes. Chickens released into the street, representatives of light breeds, as well as birds that consume feed mainly of animal origin, are most susceptible to infection with worms.

Keeping different varieties together with young animals also increases the risk of disease. For example, turkeys transmit parasites to young animals - the chicken is more resistant to this type of worm.

Useful advice. It is recommended to release chicks separately from adult birds, observing the condition that the chick walks in a place where there is no droppings.

Varieties of helminths and a list of symptoms

An infected chicken can be identified in the presence of the following signs that characterize the general symptoms of helminthiasis:

  • lack of appetite;
  • low body weight;
  • weakness;
  • lethargic state.

Note. Severe infection can lead to the death of the animal.

Butchering the carcass, certain types of helminths are visible to the naked eye. Accurate diagnosis is carried out by examining infected chicken droppings in a veterinary laboratory.

The list of parasites that live in the body of the chicken and the characteristic symptoms:

  1. Capillariasis is a disease caused by filamentous worms found in the intestines of poultry. With capillariosis, the chicken lags behind in development, has a sluggish behavior, can run weakly and refuses to eat.
  2. Syngamosis is a disease carried by the nematode and syngama, which inhabit the respiratory organs. With syngamosis, the chicken has no appetite, which is accompanied by severe exhaustion and wheezing when breathing.
  3. Ascariasis is a disease caused by roundworms that live in the intestines. With ascariasis, the bird refuses water and feed, which is accompanied by paralysis and a decrease in egg production.
  4. Cestodosis is a disease transmitted by a tapeworm parasite that lives in the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is accompanied by such a manifestation as weakness and poor appetite.
  5. Histomoniasis is a disease carried by histomonads that live in the liver. Accompanied by apathy, yellow or green liquid droppings.
  6. Amidostomiasis is a disease that is transmitted by nematodes and amidostoma helminths that live in the stomach. The sick layer is apathetic, refuses to feed. Another sign of amidostomosis is that young hens are developing slowly.
  7. Trematodosis is a disease caused by almost microscopic parasites that live in the oviduct, which are pear-shaped and have a yellowish tinge of the body. Infection occurs when eating shellfish. The presence of this disease can be recognized by the deformation of the shape of the oviduct and the absence of a shell or yolk.
  8. Nocotylidosis is a disease transmitted by parasites with a rounded torso that live in the rectum of a bird. Infection occurs when the larvae are swallowed on a swampy paddock. The list of symptoms includes a decrease or lack of response to feed, a slowdown in weight gain. Young growth may die altogether.
  9. Daveniosis is a disease caused by small-sized cestodes. Symptoms of this disease include symptoms such as low mobility of the animal, refusal to use feed. Severe consequences are the death of 65% of the livestock or the presence of a lethal outcome of certain individuals, before which sick birds are paralyzed for some time.
  10. Heteracosis is a disease transmitted by pecking eggs of this type of worms by chickens. The disease is indicated by low mobility of chickens, lack of reaction to food and diarrhea. In addition, the area of ​​the digestive tract undergoes deformation.

Infected chickens produce a small number of eggs, which differ in shell thinness. If the respiratory organs are affected, there may be a blanching of the color of the comb and the publication of wheezing.

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