Extracellular Diplococci In A Smear In Women And Men: Causes And Treatment

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Extracellular Diplococci In A Smear In Women And Men: Causes And Treatment
Extracellular Diplococci In A Smear In Women And Men: Causes And Treatment

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  • Causes and routes of infection
  • Extracellular diplococci in men
  • Diplococci in a smear in women
  • Treatment
  • You can defeat parasites!

Extracellular diplococci are round bacteria, they are located in two, sometimes they are surrounded by bacterial capsules. They also include the bacteria meningococcus, pneumococcus and gonococcus.

Diplococci are more often found in a smear during biological research. Their presence may already indicate violations of the microflora of the genital organs.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Causes and routes of infection

The route of infection depends on the pathogenicity of the bacteria:

  1. The intracellular gonococcal bacterium enters the body through unprotected sex, when sharing individual items and in utero. Gonorrhea is one of the most unpleasant diseases that, if untreated, can lead to unpleasant consequences.
  2. Meningococcal bacteria are pathogenic and may show up in the smear. The main route of infection is airborne and household. The infection affects the lining of the brain and the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Without appropriate treatment, serious complications with irreversible processes can occur.
  3. Pneumococcal bacteria are a common cause of pneumonia, especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcus is transmitted by airborne droplets and by household contact. In the presence of pneumococcus, extra- and intracellular diplococci can be found in the patient.
Bacteria under a microscope
Bacteria under a microscope
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Photo of bacteria under a microscope

Get tested for diplococci

Symptoms Answer Muscle stiffness (resistance when trying to move) Yes Not High temperature up to 40 degrees ° C Yes Not Fever Yes Not Hallucinations are possible Yes Not Vomiting Yes Not Unbearable headaches Yes Not Cough Yes Not Severity Yes Not Dyspnea Yes Not Purulent discharge from the genital tract Yes Not

Extracellular diplococci in men

A swab in men is taken from the urethra. If the doctor discovers this diplococcus, the patient is assigned a second bacterial test. A repeat smear is taken with an adhesive strip and glass.

Urethral swab
Urethral swab
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The process of taking a sample for analysis from the urethra

In most cases, the presence of extracellular diplococci in a smear in a man makes it possible to diagnose gonorrhea. In addition, they can cause the development of meningitis, pneumonia and other dangerous diseases. In men, these diseases are more common due to promiscuous sexual intercourse with non-regular partners.

The symptoms of meningitis, pneumonia, and gonorrhea are as follows.

With meningitis in a patient:

  • Muscle stiffness is noticeable;
  • He throws his head back;
  • Bends knees to the stomach;
  • High temperatures up to 40 degrees C are noted;
  • Fever;
  • Hallucinations are possible;
  • Vomiting;
  • Intolerable headaches;
  • The patient may scream in pain.

With the development of pneumonia:

  • High temperature rises;
  • Cough;
  • Heat;
  • Headaches are possible;
  • Severity;
  • Shortness of breath and stuff.

With gonorrhea, the first symptoms will be:

  • Purulent discharge from the genital tract;
  • General malaise;
  • Inflammation of the genitourinary tract with subsequent pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Discomfort when urinating.

Diplococci in a smear in women

There are three main types of diplococci in women:

Gonococci or venereal pathogens of gonorrhea. These bacteria, entering the body, form chains or bean-shaped forms that can cause a burning sensation in the urethra during urination. Yellow rare discharge also appears, and they are accompanied by an unpleasant smell of fish. Inside the vagina, these bacteria can cause the uterine region to become suppurated.
Meningococcal bacteria or sedentary organisms. They are successfully destroyed when the body temperature drops. They are localized in the nasopharynx and on the membranes of the brain.
Pneumococcal infections. They are characterized by painful perception in the chest area, fear of light, frequent disorientation in space.

To determine this or that type of diplococcus, coming to the doctor, all women must accurately describe their sensations, the process of urination, the presence of unusual discharge and unusual worries.

Based on your health, the doctor will be able to prescribe the necessary tests on time. Such tests include urine and smear tests. The smear itself is taken from the urethra, vagina and peri-ocular space.

Taking a vaginal swab
Taking a vaginal swab
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Taking a smear from the vagina and peri-ocular space

Bacterial infection occurs for the following reasons:

  • Elementary non-observance of their own hygiene;
  • The use of antibiotics without prescribing a doctor and douching unnecessarily;
  • The onset of sexual activity at an early age;
  • Tight synthetic underwear (very close to the anus and is the perfect carrier of bacteria in the vagina);
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse with a sexually transmitted disease partner;
  • Hormonal balance problems;
  • Frequent douching (many consider the procedure useful, but it flushes out all the beneficial substances and leads to severe irritation in the vaginal mucosa);
  • Wearing synthetic underwear;
  • Drop in immunity in the body;
  • Frequent change of sexual partners.

Treatment

As mentioned above, extracellular diplococci are the causes of diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia and gonorrhea.

In meningitis, the material for research is the cerebrospinal fluid, which is obtained by puncture. The procedure is very unpleasant and painful, but it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and prescribe timely treatment. The laboratory assistant prepares smears from the cerebrospinal fluid, and also makes culture on culture media containing blood.

Receiving cerebrospinal fluid
Receiving cerebrospinal fluid
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Receiving cerebrospinal fluid

The most modern research method is PCR, as a result of this analysis, the DNA of the pathogen is detected. In any case, while the analyzes are being prepared, the patient must be hospitalized, if there is a suspicion of meningitis, antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action are already prescribed during this period. After receiving positive results for meningococcus, the treatment tactics are changed.

Most often, the doctor prescribes benzylpenicillin or ampicillin. Diuretics and sedatives are prescribed at the same time. The patient is injected with water-salt solutions to normalize the condition.

If the diagnosis and treatment is not carried out on time, an infectious-toxic shock can occur, up to and including death.

Pneumonia is one of the most severe and long-lasting diseases that affects the lung tissue. X-ray is used as a diagnosis for this disease, but it only shows the presence and localization of the focus, while the cause remains unknown.

To determine the pathogen, it is necessary to collect sputum for microscopy and take a blood test. If paired globular bacteria are found in sputum during Gram staining, then these are definitely diplococci, they are the most common cause of this disease - this is about 70% of all cases.

This percentage is due to the fact that pneumococcus is in the respiratory tract of each person, and when stressful situations, hypothermia, and decreased immunity occur, it is activated as a pathogenic microflora.

Most often, pneumonia caused by pneumococcus occurs as a complication after a flu or sore throat. If possible, it is better to make a complete diagnosis, that is, it is necessary to do sputum culture on culture media.

Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics begins immediately after hospitalization. After receiving the tests, the doctor already chooses drugs that will act on the bacteria, if diplococci are found - the treatment will be the already known benzylpenicillin, the course of which lasts 7-10 days, depending on the severity.

Benzylpenicillin
Benzylpenicillin
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Benzylpenicillin

Also, amoxiclav and ceftriaxone act perfectly on pneumococci, which can be prescribed if an allergy to drugs of the penicillin group is detected.

Treatment can be adjusted depending on the results. During treatment, it is necessary to observe bed rest, as well as to pay special attention to nutrition.

It is imperative to increase the amount of liquid consumed per day, let it be pure water, fruit juices, best prepared at home and containing a large amount of vitamins. Conversely, the consumption of salt and refined carbohydrates should be significantly reduced.

It is given to those people who suffer from frequent or chronic diseases of the pulmonary system, patients with heart defects and diabetes mellitus, people who are undergoing chemotherapy or have HIV infection. For medical reasons, the vaccination is repeated after 5 years.

The next disease that diplococci cause is the well-known gonorrhea. This is a sexually transmitted disease, women can get a latent form and be unaware of their condition for a very long time, and men learn about the infection within 72 hours. In gonorrhea, bacteria infect the mucous membranes of the genital tract, penetrating into the cell itself.

The causative agent of gonorrhea
The causative agent of gonorrhea
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The causative agent of gonorrhea in a smear of pus (Gram stain)

The source of infection is a sick person and infection occurs only through sexual contact, or when the child passes through the birth canal of a sick mother, then such a disease will be called blennorrhea. For diagnosis, a woman takes a smear from the cervical region, and in men, a discharge of the urethra. The bacteria are Gram stained red, they are arranged in pairs and enclosed inside the cell.

These 3 signs already allow the doctor to diagnose gonorrhea. Sowing on nutrient media is also possible, but this is a long process and is rarely used for this disease. The most modern and sensitive is, of course, PCR. Treatment of gonorrhea is very simple, a specialist prescribes a course of antibiotics, usually ceftriaxone with azithromycin or doxycycline, the treatment lasts 7 days.

Diseases caused by diplococci are treatable, the main thing is that a visit to a specialist doctor is timely. Then the occurrence of complications after the disease is almost zero.

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