Schistosoma Mansoni: Routes Of Infection, Localization In The Body, Symptoms And Treatment

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Schistosoma Mansoni: Routes Of Infection, Localization In The Body, Symptoms And Treatment
Schistosoma Mansoni: Routes Of Infection, Localization In The Body, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Schistosoma Mansoni: Routes Of Infection, Localization In The Body, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Schistosomiasis | Bilharziasis | Causes, Symptoms and Treatment 2023, February
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  • Morphology and appearance
  • Distribution and routes of infection
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment and prevention methods
  • You can defeat parasites!

Mansoni's schistosome, like hematobium schistosome, belongs to trematodes - flatworms, blood flukes, but if the first is the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis, then the second is localized in the bladder.

Consider what this parasite is and how to treat this disease.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Morphology and appearance

The main hosts of the parasite, along with humans, are cattle, dogs, pigs and rodents, and the intermediate hosts are the snails Biomphalaria. Localization of an adult occurs in the mesenteric veins, while the female eggs are laid in the intestines.

The size of the parasite is small: in males, the length is usually 6-11 mm, in females - 12-16 mm. Mansoni's schistosome, with the help of its sharp thorns, is able to penetrate the walls of blood vessels into the gastrointestinal tract and other human organs.

Appearance
Appearance
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Male and female appearance

A feature of this dioecious parasite is its structure: the male has a gynecophore canal, resembling a pocket, where he places the female (this is clearly visible in the photo) and where she spends her whole life, and the male, feeding on the host's blood, shares it with his partner.

The life cycle of a worm is quite complex. Together with feces, the eggs enter the water, and the larvae of miracidia hatching from them penetrate into the snails, where they develop first to sporocysts, and then to cercariae - free-swimming larvae with a tail. They, in turn, are able to penetrate the human body through the skin, and clothing does not serve as an obstacle.

Life cycle of schistosomes
Life cycle of schistosomes
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Life cycle of schistosomes

Cercariae, having penetrated into the human body, lose their tail and turn into schistosomules. With the flow of blood, they spread to various organs of the body and after three weeks they become sexually mature individuals. The final place of their localization is the mesenteric veins, where they continue to live and multiply.

The main harm to a person is caused not only by the toxic waste products of the parasite, but also by its eggs, which are carried by the bloodstream and with their spikes damage tissues, primarily the intestinal walls and liver, causing the growth of scar tissue.

Distribution and routes of infection

Schistosoma Mansoni is common in Africa, which accounts for up to 90% of those infected with this intestinal disease, in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in the Middle East, mainly where there is poor sanitary conditions, there is no clean water, and reservoirs are contaminated with feces of patients, which allows helminths go through their life cycle.

Geography of the disease
Geography of the disease
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Geography of the disease

Symptoms

Intestinal schistosomiasis can also be asymptomatic, but the following symptoms are most often observed:

  • edema on the skin at the site of penetration of the cercariae; after 5-8 days - urticaria, fever;
  • an allergic reaction to toxins released during the life of the helminth;
  • the appearance of infiltrates during the migration of larvae, which can penetrate the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain;
  • inflammatory reactions leading to fibrosis and sclerosis of the intestinal walls;
  • intestinal phenomena in the form of a stool disorder, the appearance of blood and mucus in the feces;
  • headaches, lethargy, muscle and joint pain.

If, with a mild form of the disease, symptoms of enterocolitis appear sporadically, then severe diarrhea, dehydration of the body and its serious depletion, up to severe liver cirrhosis, ascites, splenomegaly and severe cachexia, are characteristic of the severe form.

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Symptoms Answer Itching and skin rashes Yes Not Temperature Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Sleep disturbances Yes Not Muscle pain Yes Not Nausea Yes Not Blood in urine Yes Not Diarrhea Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not Convulsions Yes Not

Treatment and prevention methods

Knowing where the causative agents of schistosomiasis come from, you should avoid swimming in contaminated water bodies, drink only purified water, strictly observe sanitary and hygienic requirements, and thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits. This is the prevention of parasite infestation.

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