Dioctophimosis In Carnivores And Fish

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Dioctophimosis In Carnivores And Fish
Dioctophimosis In Carnivores And Fish

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  • Etiology and epidemiology
  • How does dioctofimosis become infected?
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Possible complications
  • Healing activities
  • Drug treatment
  • Surgery
  • Symptoms of dioctophimosis in dogs
  • How is the diagnosis made?
  • Dioctophimosis treatment and prevention in dogs
  • You can defeat parasites!

Dioctophymosis (Dioctophymosis) - helminthiasis from the group of nematodes, characterized by damage to the urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, uremic phenomena, kidney damage, bloody urine

Etiology and epidemiology

The causative agent is the giant pile nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), belongs to the family Dioctophymatidae, order Ascaridida. The parasite is blood-red; female 20-100 cm long, 5-12 mm wide, male 14-40 cm and 4-7 mm respectively; eggs measuring 0.064-0.083 × 0.040-0.047 mm, ellipsoidal, with a thick yellow-brown shell, covered with semicircular depressions. Its head end has several spherical suckers, and its tail end has a bursa and spicula.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

At the stage of puberty, parasitizing in the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra of dogs, wild carnivorous mammals, sometimes in cattle, horses, and very rarely in humans.

The intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale is the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus; reservoir hosts of Dioctophyme renale are fish (ide and others). Dogs infected with Dioctophimosis and other final hosts excrete Dioctophyme renale eggs with urine. 1 month after the eggs enter the water, larvae develop in them and penetrate into the small-bristled worms. Fish become infected by feeding on these worms.

A person becomes infected with water with oligochaetes (for example, when swallowing infected oligochaetes, bathing or drinking from stagnant and slowly flowing bodies of water) or when eating raw meat of sick fish or frogs.

Dioctophimosis is registered in many countries, most often in France, Poland, USA, Bulgaria, Romania, Egypt, Brazil, Kazakhstan. In Russia, the disease occurs in the Far East and in the Voronezh region.

Dioctofimosis
Dioctofimosis
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How does dioctofimosis become infected?

In humans, nematode infection can occur as a result of eating raw or undercooked fish. Also, helminth larvae can enter the human body as a result of swimming in an infected reservoir with stagnant or slowly flowing water.

Also at risk are people who use untreated water from open reservoirs for cooking.

Most often, cases of the disease are observed in the Far East, in the North Caucasian region, Kazakhstan, as well as in some European countries - France, some states of America.

When they enter the human body, helminth larvae begin to actively parasitize in the muscle tissue of the stomach walls, which leads to an inflammatory process and hematoma.

Symptoms of the disease

Most often, dioctophimosis is accompanied by mild, confused symptoms that are identical to those of other diseases.

For this reason, the disease is almost impossible to diagnose in its early stages. In most cases, a person learns about a helminthic invasion even when the infection is very strong and serious treatment is required.

Therefore, it is very important to have a clear idea of ​​how dioctophimosis manifests itself:

  • Appetite decreases sharply, the person loses weight sharply, looks emaciated.
  • Frequent sharp pain in the abdomen, accompanied by nausea, severe belching and bloating.
  • Unreasonable vomiting, which can appear at any time of the day.
  • General weakness, depression, apathy.
  • In the feces of an infected person, dense fragments of undigested food appear.
  • When parasites are infected with the stomach, various stool disorders often appear - it can be both constipation and diarrhea.

As soon as helminths affect the liver, slightly different symptoms appear - mild painful sensations when pressing on the liver, the appearance of yellowness of the sclera and mucous membranes of the eyes.

The most difficult stage of dioctophimosis is renal helminthic disease. This condition is characterized by a sharp decrease in the amount of urine excreted. A person can feel the urge to urinate only 1-2 times per day.

While the larva migrates through the dog's body, it damages the gastrointestinal mucosa, blood vessels, liver and kidney cells. The helminth reaches its maximum size in the kidneys, at the same time up to 3-4 individuals can be localized in them. The nematode disrupts the work of the organ, destroys its parenchyma, when examining a dead dog from the kidneys, more often, one capsule remains.

Possible complications

With dioctofimosis, serious complications arise:

  • blockage of the ureter;
  • renal colic;
  • cystitis and urethritis;
  • unexpressed anemia;
  • non-atrophic gastritis.

Healing activities

Before starting treatment, a diagnosis is mandatory. For this, the patient's urine is examined for the presence of helminth eggs. Other signs of the disease are not specific. Informative methods are the study of the level of eosinophils, the study of blood biochemistry and hepatic transaminases.

Drug treatment

Conservative therapy includes the appointment of antiparasitic drugs. It is quite difficult to choose a medicine on your own, since not all clinical agents have an effect on the causative agent of dioctophimosis.

Additional symptomatic therapy is mandatory:

  1. antacids (Gevikson);
  2. hepatoprotectors (ursodeoxycholic acid).
Ursodeoxycholic acid
Ursodeoxycholic acid
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Surgery

At a serious stage of the course of the disease, when dioctofima reaches a large size, a surgical operation is prescribed to remove the parasite from the affected organ.

Symptoms of dioctophimosis in dogs

It is impossible to independently notice that a dog is sick with dioctophimosis, especially at the initial stage of infection. There are practically no symptoms until the moment of significant kidney damage and loss of function of the paired organ. Often, signs are absent even with complete atrophy of one of the kidneys (usually the right one).

What you can notice:

  • The primary symptom is bloody urine (hematuria), especially at the end of the urination process;
  • sometimes vomiting appears;
  • the kidney area becomes painful;
  • the dog is characteristically hunched over, which indicates kidney problems;
  • with severe kidney damage, peritonitis and death can develop.

When a dead dog is opened, a characteristic atrophy of the kidney tissue is established. Sometimes only a capsule remains of them, in which they find a ball of coiled worms.

How is the diagnosis made?

If dioctophimosis is suspected, urine is taken from the dog for examination. Portions are different, taken at different times of the day, they are diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1 or 1: 2. Then let it settle for 15 minutes, drain and examine the precipitate under a microscope. Sometimes a centrifuge is used to achieve a concentration of eggs in the sediment.

In case of death, the corpse of the dog is opened and the favorite places of localization of nematodes (kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract) are examined. They also diagnose by characteristic internal changes in tissues and organs left during the migration of nematode larvae.

Dioctophimosis treatment and prevention in dogs

There is no effective treatment for a parasitic disease. Veterinarians at the RosVet Exhibition Center use drugs that have proven themselves in the treatment of other nematodes of dogs (praziquantel, ivomek, levamisole). Dosages are strictly individual! Self-giving of anthelmintic agents by the owner is prohibited, since the active substance in the wrong dosage can have a detrimental effect on the functioning of the liver, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys already damaged by the nematode.

Dioctophimosis can be prevented by not feeding your dog raw fish. Also, in order to avoid nematodosis and the pet owner should not abuse raw fish dishes.

Experts of the RosVet Exhibition Center warn that preventive deworming of dogs once every 3-4 months is a guarantee that the pet will be “insured” from parasitic diseases. You also need to follow the elementary rules of feeding dogs raw meat and fish. If you suspect helminthiasis, call: + 7 (495) 256-11-11, (around the clock), bring the dog for examination to a parasitologist.

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