Table of contents:
- Release form and composition of the drug
- Mechanism of action
- Indications for use
- Mode of application
- Side effect
Video: Fansidar: Instructions For Use And Possible Contraindications
Going on a journey, people often encounter not only the beauties of nature, but also unusual diseases such as malaria. Let's imagine a drug that will help to cope with this problem: Fansidar - instructions for use.
- 1 Form of release and composition of the drug
- 2 Mechanism of action
- 3 Indications for use
- 4 Method of application
- 5 Side effects
- 6 Overdose
Release form and composition of the drug
Fansidar is a combined agent against malaria, the main active ingredients of which are sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine. It also contains additional components to give it a certain pharmacological structure and optimize the action of the components.
The drug is sold in the form of tablets containing 500 and 25 mg, respectively. active substances or solution administered intramuscularly.
Mechanism of action
The substances forming the composition of the drug disrupt the metabolism of folic acid in the internal parasite - malaria plasmodium. The tablets act on asexual intraerythrocytic microorganism species, while the joint manipulation of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine strengthens each other, suppressing the release of enzymes responsible for the production of folic acid in plasmodium cells. One pill intake is enough to kill the parasites.
Fansidar's action extends not only to various strains of plasmodia, but also to other infections caused by parasitic microorganisms.
Indications for use
The indications for Fansidar are:
- Malaria primarily caused by a P. falciparum strain that is resistant to other similar drugs.
- Pneumocystis infection.
The tablets can be used as a preventive measure against malaria
Contraindications are mainly associated with the presence of individual sensitivity to the drug and its components. In addition, contraindications include:
- infancy up to two months;
- the first weeks of pregnancy;
- lactation period;
- the presence of renal or hepatic failure;
- violation of bone marrow hematopoiesis.
It is undesirable to use the drug during the period when conception can occur; it is recommended to use contraception while taking the drug. The effect of the drug on the fetus during pregnancy has not been sufficiently tested, therefore, it is prescribed only in extreme cases, when the risk for the mother is higher than for the child.
Mode of application
The dosage of drugs depends on the age of the patient and the presence of concomitant diseases. The average norm for an adult is three tablets once. Children are assigned:
- at the age of less than four years - half a tablet;
- up to six years - one tablet;
- up to nine years - one and a half;
- up to fourteen - two.
The tablets are taken after meals with plenty of water
Fansidar's injection is administered intramuscularly in a volume of 7.5 milliliters for adults, children, respectively, from one to five milliliters, based on their age. In parallel with Fansidar, quinine is usually prescribed, which prevents the appearance of relapses and enhances the therapeutic effect of the drug.
The use of the drug for prevention begins 6-7 days before the planned trip and lasts for the entire period of stay in dangerous areas, which include states located in South America, Southeast Asia, Central and Eastern parts of the African continent.
For adults, the prophylactic dose is one tablet per week, for children - two tablets per month. At the same time, before prescribing the medicine, it is necessary to make sure that the person does not have excessive sensitivity to the components that make up Fansidar, and clarify that at the first manifestations of negative signs, the medicine is stopped.
There are also features of taking the drug, they are as follows:
- Try to avoid long exposure to the sun.
- Monitor the levels of liver enzymes of hematology and crystalluria if used for more than three months in a row.
- For long-term use, use folic acid or calcium folinate preparations.
- When the first symptoms of side symptoms appear, stop taking.
The drug is excreted through the kidneys; its duration is about one hundred hours.
The components that make up the drug are in most cases well tolerated by patients, but they can cause some side effects:
- On the skin, they can manifest as hives, rashes or itching, photosensitivity reactions and slight hair loss are also possible. After the drug is canceled, they quickly pass. Sometimes skin reactions can be very severe and manifest as erythema multiforme, Lyell's syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis.
- The circulatory system can react with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and megaloblastic anemia, often asymptomatic, aplastic and hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, eosinophilia, and very rarely with agranulocytosis. Such changes usually go away after drug withdrawal.
- The digestive system can respond with a feeling of overcrowding, nausea and even vomiting, diarrhea, the development of stomatitis, glossitis, and abdominal pain. The liver manifests itself in the form of hepatitis and pancreatitis, hepatocellular necrosis.
- In the activity of the nervous system, it can manifest itself in the form of depression, hallucinations, insomnia, the appearance of seizures, ataxia, increased nervousness and ringing in the ears.
- In the urinary tract, toxic nephrosis, crystalluria, renal failure, an increase in the content of urea nitrogen and creatinine in plasma are possible.
- Reception of Fansidar can provoke the appearance of weakness, headaches, apathy, chills and dizziness, polyneuritis, periorbital edema and others. Shortness of breath and cough may occur.
Most of the symptoms disappear within a few days after the medication is discontinued. Therefore, it is important for the patient to consult a doctor before starting the appointment and be sure to inform him about the appearance of unpleasant symptoms. In this case, drugs are prescribed - analogues, for example, Delagil.
With prolonged use of Fansidar, an overdose is possible, which manifests itself in the form of symptoms of agitation, headache, occasionally seizures, loss of appetite, the appearance of nausea and vomiting and hematological changes, glossitis, crystalluria.
In a situation of acute poisoning, gastric lavage and induction of vomiting are prescribed, and in the future, fluid replacement. In case of seizures, diazepam and barbiturates are administered. With a low content of platelets and leukocytes in the blood, calcium folinate is injected intramuscularly.
It should be remembered that the drug cannot be used in conjunction with trimethoprim or in combination with trimethoprim with sulfonamide, since such a combination can enhance the change in folic acid synthesis with the further development of side symptoms from the circulatory system.
It is also undesirable to use Fansidar and chloroquine together, which may contribute to a more dramatic manifestation of side effects.