Negleria Fowler: What It Is, Habitat, Life Cycle, Symptoms And Treatment

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Negleria Fowler: What It Is, Habitat, Life Cycle, Symptoms And Treatment
Negleria Fowler: What It Is, Habitat, Life Cycle, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Negleria Fowler: What It Is, Habitat, Life Cycle, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Naegleria fowleri life cycle | Update 2021 | Full HD 2023, February
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  • Negleria Fowler: life cycle
  • Infection
  • Symptoms of non-heriosis
  • Diagnosis and treatment of non-gleriosis
  • You can defeat parasites!

Negleria Fowler has earned a reputation as the most dangerous parasite known to science to date.

It was discovered about half a century ago and received the name of its discoverer, Malcolm Fowler.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

In an interview back in 2013, Dr. Jennifer Cope, who tracks Fowler's negleria for sanitary and epidemiological centers, warned against immediately concluding that cases are increasing.

The intense lighting of the brain moth amoeba this year appears to be in line with a trend that The Verge told me in 2013: thanks to global warming, amoebae in the brains of Americans may be becoming more common. Since I prefer not to eat my brain, and I like to know in advance about potential misfortunes that could kill me, now is probably the best time to get some reliable information about the risk of contracting this infection.

Let's figure out what Fowler's negleria is and where this parasite lives. Let's start with the habitat.

Ideal conditions for Naegleria fowleri are fresh water with a temperature of 25-32 ° C water. This includes not only waste water, but also thermal springs, swimming pools, etc., more or less polluted.

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Most cases of non-heriosis were reported in North America, much less in Europe; Fowler's nongleria habitat also includes areas with a tropical and subtropical climate - India, New Zealand, Pakistan, Taiwan.

In Russia and Ukraine, such cases have not yet been recorded; at least in the special literature there is no mention of this.

Negleria Fowler
Negleria Fowler
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Negleria Fowler: life cycle

When the reservoir warms up to 35 ° C, increased reproduction of Fowler's Negleria begins.

Some amoebas, if there are sudden changes in water temperature and pH, are able to form a pair of flagella and actively move in the liquid for about a day, after which they return to the amoeboid form again.

What this seemingly harmless organism looks like can be seen in the photo and video.

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When the living conditions become unfavorable, Fowler's niggleria is encystised, that is, it turns into a round cyst 10-20 microns in size, covered with a strong shell.

With this form of protection, this microorganism can exist for a fairly long time, and upon the return of favorable conditions, it can return to active existence.

But something else is much more dangerous: if encysting occurs as a result of the drying out of the reservoir, then the wide and rapid spread of Fowler's nigleria cysts is carried out through the air with the help of the wind, and when it gets into favorable conditions, it is quickly activated.

Take a test for non-heriosis

Symptoms Answer Headache Yes Not Deterioration of smell Yes Not Deterioration in taste Yes Not Temperature increase Yes Not Feverish condition Yes Not Nausea Yes Not Blurred vision Yes Not Impaired coordination of movements Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Convulsions Yes Not

Infection

Given the habitat of Fowler's niggleria, it is clear that its infection occurs mainly in water bodies, especially when the parasite is in the flagellar stage of development.

Localization of Fowler's negleria in the brain tissue occurs around the blood vessels. Its rapid reproduction leads to the occurrence of hemorrhages and necrosis in both the gray and white matter of the brain, which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.

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Infection routes
Infection routes
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Symptoms of non-heriosis

Its incubation period is usually 2-3 days, sometimes 7 to 15 days. The disease begins suddenly with the onset of primary symptoms: a feeling of weakness, headaches, deterioration (up to a complete loss) of smell and / or taste.

This is followed by an increase in body temperature, a feverish state, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, ataxia (impaired coordination of movements) and seizures resembling a seizure of epilepsy. All this is a consequence of the gradual destruction of the brain.

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The disease proceeds rapidly, the patient's condition worsens literally before our eyes: he has hallucinations, often the formation of ulcers is observed on the pharyngeal mucosa; clearly manifested neurological symptoms caused by meningitis and encephalitis.

The rapid development of pulmonary edema and the onset of a coma with respiratory arrest after this is fatal within a week after the first symptoms appear.

Diagnosis and treatment of non-gleriosis

The difficulty in the clinical diagnosis of a disease caused by Fowler's nigleria is due to the fact that its symptoms are very similar to meningitis and meningoencephalitis, which have a bacterial or viral etiology.

That is why, when taking anamnesis, it is necessary to establish whether there was a bathing in warm muddy reservoirs or whether the patient had contact with sewage.

You can also use the culture method. If liquid is added, negleria forms flagellate forms - a reliable way to distinguish it from acanthamoeba.

As for the treatment of non-heriosis, a treatment regimen has not yet been developed, although a number of drugs are used, including anticonvulsants as symptomatic, glucocorticoids, etc.

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The main treatment, often in combination with other drugs, is amphotericin B.

At least only the patients receiving it survived non-herious meningitis. If the central nervous system is affected, then the prognosis is poor.

Despite the fact that Fowler's niggleria causes a fairly rare disease, the best way of prevention is to avoid places of possible infection, that is, open (and not always clean) reservoirs and pools with very warm water (35 ° C and above), as well as careful observance of the rules personal hygiene.

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