Extraintestinal Amebiasis - What Is It? Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment, Ways Of Manifestation

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Extraintestinal Amebiasis - What Is It? Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment, Ways Of Manifestation
Extraintestinal Amebiasis - What Is It? Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment, Ways Of Manifestation

Video: Extraintestinal Amebiasis - What Is It? Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment, Ways Of Manifestation

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Video: Amebiasis (Amoebic Dysentery) | Entamoeba histolytica, Pathogenesis, Signs & Symptoms, Treatment 2023, February
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  • Classification of amebiasis
  • Transmission routes
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • You can defeat parasites!

Amoebiasis is an infectious disease caused by the amoeba parasite. Such parasitic protozoa are precisely what cause protozoal infections.

Since the symptoms of amoebiasis resemble dysentery, it was previously called amoebic dysentery, and its causative agent, the amoeba Entamoeba histolityca, was called dysentery (histolytic).

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Classification of amebiasis

In the international classification, it is customary to group all forms of amebiasis by symptomatology:

  • asymptomatic;
  • manifest, when there is a manifestation of clinical symptoms;

as well as localization:

  • intestinal - acute or chronic amoebic dysentery colitis, or amoebic dysentery;
  • extraintestinal: hepatic, pulmonary; cerebral; urogenital;
  • cutaneous.

Russian medical science considers extraintestinal and cutaneous amebiasis as intestinal complications.

Let's look at extraintestinal amebiasis: what it is, what are its manifestations, how is it diagnosed, treated and other important points. Let's start with what the causative agent of the disease is.

This simplest unicellular microorganism goes through four vegetative stages in its life cycle, each of which is characterized by a corresponding form:

  • tissue (the size of the amoeba is up to 25 microns);
  • large vegetative (the size of the amoeba is from 20 to 40 microns, but when moving due to the formation of pseudopods it can reach 80 microns);
  • luminal (size returns to the previous 25 microns);
  • precystic (amoeba size is 10-18 microns).

After that, the amoeba is covered with a protective membrane and goes into the cyst stage - the dormant stage, when it can persist for a long time in the external environment. What a dysentery amoeba looks like will be illustrated by pictures.

The structure of the amoeba
The structure of the amoeba
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Transmission routes

Most often, this infection enters the human body by the so-called fecal-oral method if personal hygiene is not followed, as well as when eating insufficiently thoroughly washed fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs that have not undergone heat treatment.

This disease is rightfully considered "a disease of dirty hands", because a carrier of cysts can be considered clinically healthy, but if after each visit to the toilet he does not wash his hands with soap and water, then through a handshake or household items, in public transport, he can infect other people.

Once in the body, the cysts reach the large intestine and become active. At the same time, they enter the bloodstream and are carried with it throughout the body, causing in some cases extraintestinal amebiasis.

It is characterized by the appearance of large abscesses in the affected organ. Such amoebic liver abscess, for example, with late detection, can even lead to death.

prevention
prevention
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Take a disease test

Symptoms Answer Rapid stool Yes Not Feces with mucus Yes Not Feces with blood Yes Not Heat Yes Not Lower abdominal pain Yes Not Tormenting tenesmus Yes Not Decreased appetite Yes Not The appearance of nausea Yes Not Painful along the colon Yes Not General weakness Yes Not

Symptoms

Symptoms are due to the form of the complication that has arisen.

Liver. Most often, liver damage and the development of acute amoebic hepatitis occur, as a result of which it increases in size and becomes denser.

At this stage, the temperature is usually not higher than 38 ° C, however, as the liver abscess develops, it rises to 39 ° C and above; yellowness of the skin appears, which indicates large abscesses and is considered a poor prognostic sign. The liver is no longer just enlarged - in places of suppuration it is extremely painful.

The amebic abscess of the liver also causes a febrile state with chills; profuse sweating is observed at night; analyzes show moderate leukocytosis. Large abscesses can cause jaundice, and abscess breakouts can cause peritonitis.

Often, with this pathology, the diaphragm is also involved in the process, which is expressed in the high standing of its dome, as well as in the restriction of its mobility.

Lungs. If a liver abscess breaks through the diaphragm into the lungs, pulmonary (or pleuropulmonary) amebiasis occurs.

The patient experiences shortness of breath, chest pain, a febrile state with chills; when he coughs, he coughs up phlegm along with pus and blood. In laboratory tests, leukocytosis is detected.

A heart. If an abscess from the left lobe of the liver through the diaphragm breaks into the pericardium (amoebic pericarditis), cardiac tamponade may occur, which will lead to acute heart failure - the heart will stop working, and everything will end in death.

Brain. When amoebas enter the brain with blood flow, cerebral amoebiasis develops with the appearance of one or more foci of abscess.

This disease has an acute onset, is lightning-fast in nature and quickly leads to death, since the diagnosis simply does not have time to be established.

Genitourinary system. With the formation of ulcers in the rectum, the pathogen quickly enters the genitourinary system, where genitourinary amebiasis develops, leading to inflammation of the genitals and urinary tract. In addition, women may develop a tumor of the cervix.

Leather. Although cutaneous amoebiasis falls into a separate category, it should be mentioned when considering extraintestinal amebiasis.

As a rule, it appears with reduced immunity in a patient as a complication of the intestinal form of amebiasis.

Extraintestinal amebiasis
Extraintestinal amebiasis
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Mostly areas of the skin close to the anus are affected: perineum, buttocks.

However, ulcers and erosions that affect the skin, despite their depth and unpleasant odor, almost do not cause pain.

Diagnostics

For diagnostics, along with the clinical picture of the disease and the epidemiological situation, the results of laboratory studies, primarily parasitological, play a decisive role if amoebas or their cysts can be found in the patient's feces.

Treatment

The most dangerous thing in this case is self-medication, because the patient does not know the cause of the disease, and he is not able to find an effective drug for treatment, which can only be done by a doctor, and even then provided that the diagnosis is correct.

Depending on the affected organ, the appropriate medical tactics and drugs are selected that are most effective in this particular case.

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