Types Of Parasites In The Human Body: Classification, Description, Drugs For Treatment

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Types Of Parasites In The Human Body: Classification, Description, Drugs For Treatment
Types Of Parasites In The Human Body: Classification, Description, Drugs For Treatment

Video: Types Of Parasites In The Human Body: Classification, Description, Drugs For Treatment

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Video: Microbiology of Parasites 2023, February

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  • Parasite classification
  • The most common parasites
  • Sources of infection
  • Control methods
  • You can defeat parasites!

The types of parasites in the human body are extremely diverse. Along with multicellular and protozoa, they also include viruses, bacteria and fungi that parasitize at the expense of the human body, although in the medical tradition viruses and bacteria are not usually classified as parasites.

In the human body, different types of parasites are localized not only in the intestine, as is commonly believed, but also in many other organs: in the blood, muscle tissues, joints, brain (brain and spinal cord) and even in the eyes.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Such internal organs as the digestive tract, liver, lungs, heart are especially susceptible to their influence.

The imbalance is also exacerbated by the general intoxication of the human body due to toxins released by parasites, which can lead to the development of a number of diseases, including malignant ones. Often, diseases caused by parasites become chronic.

A particular danger lies in the fact that parasitic diseases cause symptoms characteristic of others, most often intestinal infections, therefore, timely differential diagnosis is of great importance to identify the type of parasite and develop adequate treatment tactics.

The types of human parasites in general can be divided into two large groups:

  • ectoparasites parasitizing on the surface of the body and feeding on the blood of people (bugs, fleas, lice, ticks); serve as carriers of pathogens of such infections as encephalitis, typhoid, anthrax, etc.;
  • endoparasites that parasitize internal organs and lead to serious diseases; these include protozoa (lamblia, amoeba, Trichomonas, toxoplasma) and helminths - parasitic worms (worms).
endo and ectoparasites
endo and ectoparasites

Parasite classification

Let us consider in more detail the main types of human endoparasites. The appearance of many of them can only be seen under a microscope, and some, especially among the helminths, are striking in their size. Let's start with the simplest ones:

  • Giardia, along with dysbiosis, are also the cause of hypovitaminosis, anemia and general intoxication of the body.
  • Toxoplasmas affect the brain, eyes, heart muscle, nervous system, but they pose a particular danger to pregnant women due to the danger of fetal death or severe damage to it.
  • Amoebas are capable of causing amoebic dysentery, amoebic encephalitis and other dangerous diseases.
  • Trichomonas are sources of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Dysbacteriosis Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Swelling of the face and eyelids Yes Not

The most common parasites

The most common endoparasites are, of course, helminths (worms), which, according to various sources, infected more than 80% of the world's population.

A huge number of these parasites are divided into main types:

  • nematodes - roundworms (roundworms, pinworms, trichinella, whipworm, etc.);
  • cestodes - tapeworms (tapeworms, pork and bovine tapeworm, echinococcus, etc.);
  • trematodes - fluke worms (liver, blood, pulmonary, as well as flukes living in the intestine).

Sometimes you can find a more general classification, according to which all types of human parasites are divided into:

  • luminal (intestinal), parasitic in the intestine;
  • tissue, localized in other organs and tissues.

Consider a brief description of the most common types of helminths

Roundworms (nematodes)

  • Roundworms are the most common roundworms from 20 to 40 cm long, parasitizing in the small intestine, but pre-migrating in the human body, affecting the circulatory and respiratory system. Along with the intestines, these parasites can be found in the liver and gallbladder, heart and lungs. A common symptom of ascariasis is an allergic reaction.
  • Pinworms are small worms up to 1 cm, affecting the intestines and leading to enterobiasis with gastrointestinal disorders, exhaustion, sleep disturbances, etc. A characteristic sign of pinworms is itching in the anus, where they lay eggs.
  • Trichinella - these microscopic worms (their size is only a few millimeters) lead to serious diseases - trichinosis, which can lead to death if left untreated. Adult species live in the human body in the muscles (respiratory, facial, etc.), causing muscle pain, fever, edema, and allergic skin rashes.
  • Vlasoglava - small worms (up to 4.5 cm long, with the front of the body
Roundworms (nematodes)
Roundworms (nematodes)

in the form of threads), the larvae of which cause trichocephalosis with diarrhea, acute abdominal pain and other symptoms resembling appendicitis. Due to the intoxication of the body, anemia develops.

Tape worms (cestodes)

  • The broad tapeworm, whose body length reaches 10 m, leads to the development of diphyllobothriasis with nausea, weakness, vomiting, unstable stools, asthenia and anemia.
  • Pork tapeworm has a length of 3 to 8 m, parasitizes mainly in the small intestine and causes two diseases at once: teniasis with dyspeptic, astheno-neurotic and abdominal syndromes, and cysticercosis with intoxication, intestinal, allergic and respiratory syndromes. Depending on the localization of cysticercus, muscles, brain, heart, eyes, etc. are affected.
  • Bovine tapeworm, which can be up to 18 m long, causes teniarinhoses and is considered one of the most dangerous types of worms. If you don't do deworming, it can live in the human body for up to 18-20 years! It is localized in the large intestine, causes severe intoxication with its waste products, as well as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, anemia, allergic reactions and problems with the nervous system.
  • Dwarf tapeworm, only 1.5-5 cm long, is a source of hymenolepiasis with dyspeptic, pain and astheno-neurotic syndromes, from which, first of all, the digestive and nervous systems of the body, as well as the liver, suffer.
  • Echinococcus is considered the smallest tapeworm - its length is only 2.5 to 8, rarely 9 mm, but infection with it has dire consequences in the form of damage to the liver and lungs, where cysts and tumors are formed that cause dysfunction of these organs.
Tape worms (cestodes)
Tape worms (cestodes)

Fluke worms (trematodes)

  • The hepatic fluke, or the hepatic fluke, resembles a leaf 30-50 mm long and 8-13 mm wide, has suckers. It damages the liver membrane and, by blocking the bile ducts, is able to completely block the outflow of bile. May lead to cirrhosis, jaundice, and liver cancer.
  • Cat (Siberian) fluke, or cat fluke, flat worm 4-13 mm long. Localization - ducts of the gallbladder, liver and pancreas. It causes opisthorchiasis with the development of gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis, cholecystitis up to liver cancer, which can be fatal.
  • The pulmonary fluke has an ovoid shape, a red-brown body with small spines 7.5 to 12 mm long and 4-8 mm wide. Affects the lungs, causing inflammation, exudative pleurisy, focal fibrosis, and lung cancer. When it enters the brain, it causes encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.
  • Schistosomes (blood flukes) are dioecious worms 1-2 cm in size, whose eggs cause enlargement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes, the formation of polyps in the intestine, diarrhea, granulomatous inflammation, leading to bladder cancer.
Fluke worms (trematodes)
Fluke worms (trematodes)

Sources of infection

Helminthiasis, like other intestinal diseases, is most often a "disease of dirty hands", which causes the eggs and larvae of helminths to enter the human body:

  • when they do not wash their hands after using the toilet and before eating;
  • do not wash vegetables, fruits and herbs that are consumed raw;
  • do not subject meat and fish to sufficient heat treatment;
  • when consuming improperly salted fish and lard;
  • leave prepared foods available to flies and cockroaches;
  • use feces as fertilizer in garden plots;
  • swim in reservoirs not intended for this;
  • contact with stray animals.
dirty hands and worms
dirty hands and worms

Control methods

  • From an early age, instill in children the habit of washing their hands. They need to do this more often, since they constantly tinker in sand, earth, puddles, where the most favorable conditions for eggs and larvae of parasites, and come into contact with domestic and outdoor animals.
  • If any ailment occurs, helminthiasis cannot be ruled out, therefore it is recommended to do appropriate tests for parasites to determine the specific type of helminth (there are drugs against most of them.
  • If the parasites are found in one family member, everyone should take drugs for helminthiasis.
  • Traditional medicine knows many ways to get rid of worms, and they give a good effect.
  • Do not leave open cooked food, bread, pastries, etc., so that flies or cockroaches - carriers of worm eggs - do not leave them on the food.
  • Carefully observe the temperature regime during the cooking process: meat and fish, in which helminth eggs are often found, boil / fry / bake well.
  • It is good to rinse vegetables, fruits, herbs that are consumed raw in running water.
  • Regular deworming of pets.
  • Refuse to use feces as fertilizer in their garden plots.
  • When traveling to exotic countries, be extremely careful about local dishes, especially those offered on the street - there is no guarantee that you will not pick up some no less exotic helminth with them.

Take a test for the presence of parasites in the body

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