Spirometra Erinacei Diphyllobothrium Erinacei Europaei

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Spirometra Erinacei Diphyllobothrium Erinacei Europaei
Spirometra Erinacei Diphyllobothrium Erinacei Europaei

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  • Spirometra erinacei at a glance
  • Who is at risk of infection?
  • Symptoms
  • What's happening? during Sparganosis
  • Diagnostics
  • Features of therapy
  • Prevention
  • You can defeat parasites!

Sparganosis, or Sparganosis, is a zoonotic (transmitted to humans from animals) parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Spirometra erinacei.

Despite the relatively low incidence, this helminthiasis is by no means exotic: it can be infected in 48 countries of the world, which include Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Spirometra erinacei
Spirometra erinacei
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Spirometra erinacei at a glance

Sparganosis is caused in humans not by adult worms, like the vast majority of helminthiases, but by the plerocercoid, i.e. the larval stage of the aforementioned parasite from the tapeworm family (pictured above). The length of a mature worm is up to 30 cm, and its width is up to 12 mm.

Sparganosis can be called related to another helminthiasis - diphyllobothriasis, the causative agent of which is the largest of the parasitic worms, the broad tapeworm. However, diphyllobothriasis and sparganosis differ significantly in the location of the parasites and the symptoms of the disease.

Spirometra erinacei at a glance
Spirometra erinacei at a glance
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Who is at risk of infection?

The final hosts of Spirometra erinacei (that is, animals from which a person becomes infected with helminthiasis) are cats, dogs, wolves, foxes, bears, wild boars (less often pigs) and occasionally herbivorous mammals. This includes at risk all hunters who eat their prey and are negligent in preparing it. However, they may not be aware of the infection for many months and years.

Sometimes additional hosts are included in the life cycle of the parasite, which include frogs and snakes.

Nevertheless, sparganosis is dangerous even for vegetarians, since there are cases of infection with it when swallowing daphnia crustaceans and cyclops, which are widespread throughout the world, together with water. Thus, any adherent of water recreation on rivers and lakes can be potential infected.

Who is at risk of infection?
Who is at risk of infection?
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There is another, more unusual way of infection - contact, i.e. through wounds on the skin or even healthy mucous membranes, including the conjunctiva of the eye. The contact method of infection usually occurs when it comes into contact with the flesh of an animal with sparganosis (snakes, frogs, pigs, wild boars), which adds to the risk group even butchers and cooks.

Who is at risk of infection?
Who is at risk of infection?
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Symptoms

One of the most common and unpleasant symptoms of sparganosis is the defeat of the conjunctiva by the larvae of the parasite, accompanied by lacrimation, sharp pain, pronounced edema, hyperemia (overflow of blood vessels). Subsequently, the conjunctiva becomes inflamed, and a node is formed inside it containing the parasite larva.

The orbital form of sparganosis is somewhat different - the settlement of helminths in the eye socket. Compression of the optic nerve, orbital edema, exophthalmos (bulging of the eye) are often observed.

Often, these helminths settle in the fatty tissue of the eyelids, which leads to their edema, itching and rash on the eyelids. The mobility of the eyelids deteriorates, over time they can completely close their eyes.

Proliferative sparganosis is characterized by the migration of parasites into the subcutaneous tissue of the thighs, shoulders, neck and other areas of the skin, as well as into the lungs and abdominal organs. Tumors and lumps eventually turn into ulcers.

The serious condition of the patient is caused by cerebral sparganosis - the localization of worms in the human brain. It is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • fever;
  • neuroses;
  • paresthesia;
  • movement disorders;
  • headaches;
  • partial amnesia;
  • coma;
  • headache;
  • confusion of consciousness.

Accurate diagnosis of sparganosis is possible only with the surgical removal of plerocercoids from the body.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Dysbacteriosis Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Swelling of the face and eyelids Yes Not

What's happening? during Sparganosis

A person becomes infected with water containing infested cyclops crustaceans. Infection is also possible when eating the meat of infested frogs, snakes and other additional hosts of the pathogen. There are known cases of infection by contact, when the meat of frogs or snakes was applied to wounds and ulcers as a remedy.

Having penetrated through the intestinal wall after infection, the pathogen migrates in the body, then localizing in various internal organs and tissues, more often under the skin, in the intermuscular connective tissue, under the conjunctiva of the eye, causing a local inflammatory process.

Parasitization of sparganums in the body is accompanied by the development of inflammatory reactions, the parasites exert constant pressure on the surrounding tissues, blood vessels, nerves, which leads to the development of degenerative and necrotic processes. The presence of sparganums in the body leads to allergic disorders.

What's happening? during Sparganosis
What's happening? during Sparganosis
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Diagnostics

Diagnosis of sparganosis is based on anamnestic indications of eating meat of additional hosts, the presence of infiltrates in the subcutaneous tissue without an inflammatory reaction, and morphological examination of removed tissues and the detection of parasites.

Features of therapy

The main treatment for sparganosis is the surgical removal of the nodules along with the larvae. To destroy the parasites, ethyl alcohol and anesthetic are injected into the tumor before the operation.

If it is impossible to remove the neoplasm, therapy is carried out using broad-spectrum antiparasitic drugs - Praziquantel, Thiabendazole, Mebendazole.

Mebendazole
Mebendazole
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In critical cases, Neosalvarsan (Novarsenol) is injected intravenously, but the drug has many severe side effects, so doctors use it as a last resort.

Treatment of sparganosis during pregnancy always negatively affects the condition of a woman, the fetus dies or develops severe pathologies.

Only a doctor can prescribe drugs to a person, the dosage and duration of treatment depends on the duration of the infection, the location of the parasite, the number of helminths. The therapy is carried out only in a hospital setting.

Prevention

It is easy for people to avoid sparganosis, it is enough to adhere to simple rules.

  • always carefully boil meat, river fish, fry;
  • cutting carcasses only with gloves;
  • use only purified water;
  • do not swim in unfamiliar fresh water bodies.

To prevent the spread of the disease among animals, feed and water are carefully controlled. All meat obtained from hunting wild animals must be subjected to close sanitary examination.

It is important to remember that rare helminthiases are rare! This will help to avoid abuse by manufacturers of all kinds of "panacea" for parasites.

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