Flukes (Digenea): Photo, Developmental Life Cycle, Symptoms And Host

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Flukes (Digenea): Photo, Developmental Life Cycle, Symptoms And Host
Flukes (Digenea): Photo, Developmental Life Cycle, Symptoms And Host

Video: Flukes (Digenea): Photo, Developmental Life Cycle, Symptoms And Host

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Video: Digenea: Life cycle Diversity 2023, February
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  • Who are the flukes
  • Development life cycle
  • Hepatic fluke
  • Pulmonary fluke
  • Blood fluke
  • Treatment methods
  • You can defeat parasites!

Flukes (Digenea) represent a group of trematodes, there are about 3000 species that are distinguished by a parasitic lifestyle.

Most of the ciliated helminths are free predators, and flukes and tapeworms parasitize in the human body, causing serious pathological conditions, in some cases becoming the cause of death.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Who are the flukes

From Greek, trematodes are translated as having a sucker. The Russian designation of the parasite fluke is due to its way of feeding - the absorption of food with the help of a sucker.

There are about four dozen flukes that penetrate the human body and parasitize in it, provoking the development of serious pathological conditions.

Fluke worms (trematodes)
Fluke worms (trematodes)
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Fluke worms (trematodes)

The common name for infestation is trematodosis. However, infection with a particular type of parasite proceeds in different ways.

The most common flukes Short description
Feline (Siberian) It affects humans, some mammals, provoking opisthorchiasis.

Siberian fluke
Siberian fluke
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Fasciola (liver fluke) Parasitizes in the body of herbivores, humans, provokes fascioliasis.

Hepatic fluke
Hepatic fluke
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Lanceolate fluke Distributed among cattle, in rare cases, it affects humans. Causes dicroceliosis.

Lanceolate fluke: structure
Lanceolate fluke: structure
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Pulmonary fluke Provokes paragonimiasis.

Pulmonary fluke
Pulmonary fluke
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Schistosomes The causative agent of schistosomiasis. A common parasite in countries with tropical, subtropical climates. Parasite in the circulatory system.

Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis
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Blood fluke Dissolved trematodes live in a subtropical climate. Males carry the female to the warehouse on the stomach.

Blood flukes
Blood flukes
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Clonorchis The causative agent of clonorchiasis, looks like a cat fluke. A common parasite in the Far East.

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Usually, the invasion occurs by the oral route when contaminated food and water are consumed. Thermally untreated fish, crustaceans are the main source of infection.

Once in the intestines, the parasite is able to enter the circulatory system and spread throughout the body, poisoning it, disrupting the integrity and functioning of internal organs and systems.

Schistosomes can enter the body through the skin, while swimming in polluted bodies of water (salt and fresh). They provoke disturbances in the functions of the intestines, reproductive system, and brain. If the worm was able to reach the brain, the prognosis for the host is poor.

Development life cycle

Fertilization of flukes occurs in a cross way inside the parasite. Fertilized eggs are covered with a protective membrane and mature in the uterus, after maturation they are excreted from the intestines along with feces.

For development, eggs need to get into the water, where miracidium is formed from them. Further development requires an intermediate carrier.

Development life cycle
Development life cycle
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Once in the body of the intermediate host, a sporocyst is formed from the larva, which is distinguished by the presence of female genital organs. After reproduction of sporocysts, cercariae appear, which leave the host's body.

Most of the cercariae die, while the other enters the body of cattle that ate the infected grass. In the organism of the new host, the larvae mature to mature individuals, and reproduction occurs with a clutch of eggs.

Hepatic fluke

Invasion with this parasite is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • fever, high temperature;
  • headaches;
  • pain in joints, muscles;
  • attacks of nausea, vomiting;
  • loss of strength, general weakness and increased fatigue;
  • loss of appetite;
  • dysfunction of the digestive system;
  • swelling and sore throat, asthma attacks;
  • wet cough, runny nose;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium;
  • yellow skin color;
  • allergic skin rash;
  • itching, scratching of the skin.
Hepatic fluke
Hepatic fluke
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Pulmonary fluke

When the eggs of the parasite enter the body, a person may experience the following symptoms:

  • rash on the skin;
  • stool disorders;
  • pain in the chest, abdomen;
  • fever.

Usually, the first signs of fluke infection appear only 21 days after the fluke enters the lungs. After 2 months, the parasite develops to a sexually mature individual and reproduces.

Sometimes eggs can enter the brain, where they also reproduce, damaging organ tissue. This condition is accompanied by migraines, bouts of vomiting, convulsions. The parasite leads to increased intracranial pressure, which can lead to death.

Pulmonary fluke
Pulmonary fluke
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Blood fluke

The initial stage of infection
  • slight swelling and rashes on the dermis, outwardly similar to urticaria;
  • headaches;
  • pain in muscles, joints;
  • cough, sometimes with blood impurities;
  • fever, chills, fever.
Chronic
  • violation of the integrity of the internal organs in which the worm parasitizes;
  • the formation of ulcers, cysts.
Light form
  • general deterioration of health;
  • increased fatigue;
  • weakness;
  • irritability.
Moderate severity
  • anemia;
  • diarrhea;
  • enlargement of the liver, spleen;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium;
  • increased body temperature;
  • dysfunction of the genitourinary system.
Severe stage Serious damage to internal organs is observed, due to which their functioning deteriorates, bleeding is possible. In some cases, for example, with blockage of the pulmonary vessels, death occurs.

Significant tissue changes are observed around the eggs, which entails the development of secondary infections.

Treatment methods

After diagnostics, studying the results of laboratory tests, the doctor determines the type of parasite and selects adequate therapy.

Usually, the treatment is complex using:

  • choleretic;
  • antiallergic;
  • enzymatic;
  • steroid hormones.

Antihelminthic therapy includes the use of vitamin complexes, immunomodulators, sorbents. All medicines, dosage are selected individually. Compliance with preventive standards increases the chances of recovery, reduces the risk of relapse.

No one is immune from infestation by helminths. Flukes are dangerous representatives of helminths that are difficult to treat and can lead to the death of their owner.

If negative symptoms appear, it is better to contact a medical institution. Self-medication can not only aggravate the disease, but also affect further treatment with recovery. The method of therapy is selected individually after an accurate diagnosis has been made.

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