Helminthiasis In Children: Treatment, Prevention, Diagnosis And Symptoms

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Helminthiasis In Children: Treatment, Prevention, Diagnosis And Symptoms
Helminthiasis In Children: Treatment, Prevention, Diagnosis And Symptoms

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Video: Dr. Simikiruthiga Senthilkumar talks about Worm Infection In Children 2023, February
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  • What helminths do children most often get?
  • What is enterobiasis
  • Ascariasis
  • Toxocariasis
  • Symptoms and how helminthiasis manifests itself in a child

    • Signs of enterobiasis
    • Signs of ascariasis
    • Signs of toxocariasis
  • Cough with helminthiasis in children
  • Drugs for the treatment of helminthiasis in children
  • Prevention methods
  • You can defeat parasites!

Helminthiasis is a disease caused by infection with inferior worms - parasites (helminths). According to the results of studies by the World Health Organization, almost every person suffers one of the types of helminth infestation throughout his life.

Helminthiasis in children
Helminthiasis in children
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What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Children under the age of 14 fall into the category of particular risk of infection. This is due to unstable children's immunity, as well as not formed hygienic skills.

The presence of worms in a child provokes not only a deficiency in the supply of nutrients to the body, but also causes allergies, a decrease in immunity, which leads to relapses of acute respiratory diseases, chronic intoxication, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of helminthiasis may not occur immediately, for a long time the disease can proceed without a pronounced clinical picture, therefore it is extremely important not to neglect laboratory tests for preventive purposes.

What helminths do children most often get?

There are about three hundred varieties of helminths in the world. On the territory of our country, about thirty types of parasites are most common. In pediatric patients, the most common diagnoses are:

  • enterobiasis (pinworm infection);
  • ascariasis (ascaris infection);
  • toxocariasis (toxocara infection).

What is enterobiasis

The causative agent of this disease are helminths that live in the intestines - pinworms. The parasite got its name because of the sharp tail end that the female has.

Helminth is a small white worm, 6-10 mm long. The parasites are most active in the evening, when females crawl out of the anus and lay eggs on the skin of the anus. At the same time, the child feels severe irritation and discomfort.

Pinworms
Pinworms
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Pinworms

The eggs fall on the linen, under the fingernails, and then spread throughout the room, which contributes to re-invasion. Eggs that enter the body turn into larvae. These larvae become adults in 2 weeks. Most often, the disease occurs in young children. Ways of infection with enterobiasis are oral and contact.

Ascariasis

Ascariasis is a helminthic invasion caused by such a type of parasite as roundworm. An adult helminth reaches 25 - 40 cm and looks like a round worm. The danger of the disease lies in the ability of ascaris to affect, in addition to the intestines, other organs - the gallbladder, liver, lungs, heart and even the brain.

The larvae enter the blood vessels and with the bloodstream spread from the intestines throughout the body, disrupting the activity of vital organs. Self-infection with ascaris is excluded. Ascaris eggs enter the body from the soil, in which they can be for years.

Helminths appear in a child only if an egg is swallowed. The main sources of infection are inadequately processed fruits and vegetables, dirty hands.

Ascaris
Ascaris
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Ascaris

Toxocariasis

The cause of the disease is the infection of the body with round worms - toxocaras. Adult parasites grow up to 35 - 40 cm. Egg development takes place in the ground. The human body is both an intermediate and a main host for the parasite.

In the first version, the eggs of the worms, invading the body, become larvae, and with the flow of blood are carried through the organs, giving rise to the larval type of the disease. The second option involves parasitizing toxocar in the intestines. Pets can carry the disease.

Toxocars
Toxocars
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Toxocars

Symptoms and how helminthiasis manifests itself in a child

Helminthiasis in children can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the intensity of infection and the type of parasite. However, there are general signs that may indicate a helminth infection:

  • a decrease or a sharp increase in the child's appetite;
  • slowdown in growth;
  • physical lag;
  • fatigue, apathy, lethargy, complaints of headache;
  • undefined pain in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • nausea;
  • increased salivation;
  • irritability;
  • impairment of memory and concentration;
  • all kinds of allergic manifestations;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • frequent inflammation of the ENT organs (in particular, the nasopharynx).

Signs of enterobiasis

The effect of eggs is manifested by perianal itching.

It can also be observed:

  • decreased attention;
  • capriciousness;
  • migraine;
  • pain in the navel;
  • urge to vomit;
  • dysbiosis.

Due to scratching of the anal area, it is possible to enter a secondary infection and develop eczema. In girls, pinworms can cause enuresis and vulvovaginal enterobiasis.

Signs of ascariasis

During the period of movement of the larvae, the following manifestations are possible:

  • rashes
  • cough,
  • bronchitis,
  • slight temperature rise

With the onset of the intestinal phase, general intoxication, gastrointestinal upset, and nausea appear.

A large accumulation of helminths can provoke dynamic obstruction. Children have sleep disturbances and irritability.

Signs of toxocariasis

With this disease, manifestations are pronounced:

  • cough with an asthmatic component;
  • rash on the skin;
  • itching;
  • possibly an increase in lymph nodes and liver;
  • puffiness of the face;
  • joint damage.

In rare cases, toxocariasis ophthalmitis develops.

These symptoms can indicate a variety of other diseases. An accurate diagnosis can only be made by a doctor based on laboratory tests!

Cough with helminthiasis in children

A child's cough is not always a sign of a viral disease. Quite often, this symptom occurs as a result of damage to the body by helminths. In this case, the cough is provoked by blocking the air flow by the larvae of parasites located in the bronchi.

In most cases, the cough is caused by migratory types of helminths: roundworms, toxocaras and pulmonary fluke. If there is a suspicion of the relationship between cough and helminthiasis, it is necessary to conduct a full examination, and after identifying the type of parasite, make appropriate treatment.

Drugs for the treatment of helminthiasis in children

The selection of the drug should be carried out only after the established diagnosis, depending on the type of parasitic helminth and the degree of infection of the organism. The main effective drugs used in pediatric practice include such drugs

Drug name Type of helminth
Mebendazole

Mebendazole
Mebendazole
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Ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, enterobiasis. teniasis, trichocephalosis, strongyloidosis.
Levamisole

Levamisole
Levamisole
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Ankylostomiasis, ascariasis, noncatorosis, enterobiasis.
Albendazole

Albendazole
Albendazole
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Clonorchiasis, ascariasis, enterobiasis, ankylostomiasis, toxocariasis, necatorosis, teniasis, gnatostomiasis, hymenolepiasis, trichinosis.
Pirantel

Pirantel
Pirantel
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Ascariasis, necatorosis, enterobiasis, hookworm infection.
Piperazine

Piperazine
Piperazine
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It does not destroy larvae and eggs, but simply paralyzes pinworms and roundworms.

Prevention methods

The main rule of preventive manipulations is thorough hygiene. In most cases, helminth eggs are carried into the body through dirty hands.

Therefore, children need to wash their hands thoroughly after playing in the sandbox and after contact with animals. And also it is necessary to carry out the following preventive measures:

  • scrupulous washing of vegetables, fruits, herbs;
  • long heat treatment of fish and meat;
  • compulsory prevention of helminths in pets;
  • keeping the house clean.

Also, for prevention, many doctors recommend the use of broad-spectrum anthelmintics once every six months. This rule especially applies to children attending preschool institutions in contact with a large number of children, based on laboratory tests!

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