Vlasoglav Human (trichuris Vulpis): Description, Life Cycle, Symptoms Of The Disease And Methods Of Treatment

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Vlasoglav Human (trichuris Vulpis): Description, Life Cycle, Symptoms Of The Disease And Methods Of Treatment
Vlasoglav Human (trichuris Vulpis): Description, Life Cycle, Symptoms Of The Disease And Methods Of Treatment

Video: Vlasoglav Human (trichuris Vulpis): Description, Life Cycle, Symptoms Of The Disease And Methods Of Treatment

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Video: Trichuriasis, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. 2023, January
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  • The appearance, structure and life cycle of the parasite
  • Symptoms and routes of infection
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment and prevention of infection
  • You can defeat parasites!

Human Vlasoglav (Trichocephalus trichiurus) belongs to nematodes (roundworms) that cause one of the most common helminthiases - trichocephalosis.

According to statistics, from half a billion to a billion people are infected with this helminth in the world.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

The appearance, structure and life cycle of the parasite

Trichocephalus trichiurus belongs to the so-called intestinal helminths, as it lives in the human intestine, namely, in the cecum.

The popular name "whipworm" very accurately characterizes its appearance: the front part of the parasite is very long and thin, really similar to hair, here are the oral cavity and esophagus, and in the rear, much wider part, all other internal organs (intestines, anus, in females - the uterus).

The worm is relatively small in size: the body length of the female is up to 5.5 cm, of the male - up to 4.5 cm. They can be distinguished by the shape of the “tail” (wide part), which is clearly seen in the photo: in the male it is, as it were, twisted in a spiral, and in the female it is a curved arc.

The front end of the parasite's body is so sharp that it easily passes through the intestinal mucosa and the walls of blood vessels. The worm feeds on a semi-liquid substrate of mucosal cells and blood.

The appearance, structure and life cycle of the parasite
The appearance, structure and life cycle of the parasite
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The color of the worm varies from whitish-grayish tones to reddish; upon closer examination, you can see transverse lines on his body.

Trichocephalus trichiurus is a geohelminth, as its eggs need soil and oxygen to mature. They enter the external environment along with the feces excreted by an infected person, and under favorable conditions in the warm season, they mature in the ground for several weeks (a month or more). The sun is destructive for them.

If the eggs hit the soil in the cold season, that is, under unfavorable conditions, for example, in autumn, then their development stops and resumes only in spring. Until the maturation process is completed, helminth eggs are not dangerous.

This prazite has no intermediate hosts; its main and only host is man. The eggs of the parasite enter the human body through the mouth along with infected food and water, or they are simply carried in with dirty hands.

In the gastrointestinal tract, eggs are localized in the small intestine, where larvae soon appear from them, penetrating the mucous membrane, where their development continues. After 7-10 days, the larvae move to the large intestine, where they are located among the villi and feed on blood.

Development cycle
Development cycle
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To reach sexual maturity, the larvae need 2-3 months, after which the female begins to release up to 60 thousand eggs per day, which, together with feces, go outside and, thus, the life cycle of the parasite begins anew.

The number of individuals in the human body can range from several tens to several thousand, each of them consumes up to 0.5 ml of blood daily, and the life of the parasite in the human body reaches 5-6 years.

Symptoms and routes of infection

The route of infection is fecal-oral, that is, you can become infected by consuming eggs-contaminated fruits, berries, vegetables that do not undergo heat treatment, as well as water from springs, wells, etc., not included in the centralized water supply system.

Vlasoglav is the causative agent of trichocephalosis, however, with a small number of parasites in the body, its asymptomatic course is possible, with the exception of periodic abdominal pain.

Infection routes
Infection routes
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If the invasion is intense, then in a month and a half, the active reproduction of the parasite begins in the intestine, and then the symptoms of the disease become pronounced.

In the puncture sites, with the help of which the parasite attaches to the intestinal mucosa, infiltrates are formed, hemorrhages, erosion and necrosis occur, inflammation begins, secondary infection and complications can develop: inflammation of the cecum, appendicitis, etc.

If the whipworm pierces the large intestine with its sharp end, then peritonitis and interintestinal abscess may develop. Due to irritation of the nerve endings in the intestine, its motility is disrupted.

In general, the symptoms of trichocephalosis are as follows:

  • general weakness, anemia (anemia), pallor of the skin due to a deficiency of vitamins, trace elements, proteins and glucose consumed by the parasite; in children, this can cause a slowdown in growth and mental development;
  • chronic diarrhea with the appearance of impurities of mucus and blood in the feces, which is accompanied by pulling pains, constant urge to defecate; children with insufficient nutrition may have rectal prolapse;
  • flatulence;
  • decreased appetite, heartburn, nausea, vomiting;
  • temperature rise up to 38 ° C, febrile state;
  • headaches with attacks of dizziness, sleep disturbance, increased nervousness and irritability as a result of damage to the nervous system; children may experience seizures and fainting;
  • allergic reactions due to intoxication of the body with toxic waste products of worms in the form of acne, rashes and spots on the skin.

With timely treatment, you can completely get rid of, but if the process is started, the consequences can be very serious, up to blockage of the bile ducts, liver and pancreatic abscess, intestinal obstruction, malignant neoplasms, and in women, in addition, miscarriages and infertility.

Take a test for trichocephalosis

Symptoms Answer Anemia (anemia) Yes Not Pallor of the skin Yes Not Diarrhea with mucus and blood in the stool Yes Not Constipation Yes Not Vomiting and nausea Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Temperature rise to 38 ° C Yes Not Sleep disorder Yes Not Migraine Yes Not Increased nervousness Yes Not

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of trichocephalosis is based primarily on the analysis of feces, and repeated, since the eggs of the parasite are found only with a sufficiently large number of worms.

They have a characteristic barrel-shaped shape, so that even despite their small size (20x50 microns) they are easy to recognize. The flotation method is often used to assess the surface film that forms in the feces container.

Symptoms
Symptoms
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The information content of a blood test may be questionable, since eosinophilia does not always develop - one of the indicators of helminthiasis. As an additional diagnostic method, an ELISA blood test is used.

When performing sigmoidoscopy, you can visually detect a helminth if the number of adults is large.

Taking anamnesis plays an important role for differential diagnosis, since the symptomatology of the disease is generally not specific. Considering how the pathogen enters the body, special attention should be paid to frequent contact with soil, humus and manure (work in agriculture, in a summer cottage).

Treatment and prevention of infection

Treatment of trichocephalosis should be comprehensive. In addition to anthelmintic therapy, the purpose of which is to destroy the worm, its eggs and larvae, it is also necessary to eliminate the negative consequences of its vital activity, to rid the body of general intoxication, secondary infections, allergies, etc. with the help of antihistamines, antispasmodics, painkillers.

Trichocephalosis
Trichocephalosis
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With severe damage to the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver, treatment is carried out inpatiently, with a lighter form - on an outpatient basis. Although the helminth is infected by the fecal-oral method, all family members should also be examined - they need to carry out three analyzes of feces and, if eggs are found in it, also undergo treatment.

Currently, treatment with Mebendazole (Vermox) is considered the most effective; Albendazole, Bio-Cleansing, Ivermectin, Naftamon, Timol, etc. have also proven themselves well.

After recovery, the patient should be on the dispensary for another 2-3 years and regularly, especially during periods of activation of the whipworm, take a feces test (the same applies to his family members).

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