Types Of Worms In Humans (photo And Description): How To Determine And How It Is Treated

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Types Of Worms In Humans (photo And Description): How To Determine And How It Is Treated
Types Of Worms In Humans (photo And Description): How To Determine And How It Is Treated

Video: Types Of Worms In Humans (photo And Description): How To Determine And How It Is Treated

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Video: Microbiology of Parasites 2023, February
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  • What types of worms do humans have?

    • Pinworms
    • Vlasoglav
    • Wide ribbon
    • Ascaris
    • Trichinella
    • Hepatic fluke
  • How to determine the type of worms
  • How to be treated
  • You can defeat parasites!

Worms arise in humans as a result of the penetration of parasitic multicellular organisms into the body - lower parasitic worms or helminths. Each of the 250 types of parasitic worms causes a specific disease with its own characteristic symptoms. There are only 20 species in Russia. This article will present the most common types of worms in humans with photos and descriptions.

What types of worms do humans have?

A description of each of the types of worms is given below the table.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Parasite type (disease) Method of infection Symptoms Time of onset of symptoms
Pinworms (enterobiasis) With food of plant origin. Nocturnal itching around the anus, the presence of parasites in the feces, sharp short-term pain in the navel. 2-3 days after infection
Vlasoglav (trichocephalosis) With contaminated food prepared in unsanitary conditions. Symptoms are expressed only with severe invasion: diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, inflammation of the appendix. In children, the growth of the body can be delayed and even rectal prolapse may occur. Few weeks
Broad tapeworm (diphyllobothriasis) When eating infected river fish. This parasite can live up to 25 years inside the patient. Mechanical damage to the intestines, vitamin deficiency, intestinal obstruction, intoxication of the body, allergies. Few weeks
Ascaris (ascariasis) With food of plant origin. Pain in the intestines, peritonitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, liver disease, pancreas. May cause suffocation by crawling from the gastrointestinal tract into the esophagus or airways. About 3 months
Trichinella (Trichinosis) Poorly processed meat, lard. Nausea and bouts of heartburn, diarrhea. 2 days
Hepatic fluke (fascioliasis) Plant food and water. Fever, dry cough, loss of appetite, abdominal pain. 2-4 weeks

Pinworms

Pinworms are the most famous and common worms that affect the human intestines. When these nematodes multiply, a disease occurs, which is called enterobiasis. Children are the most vulnerable to infection with pinworms, and the level of infection among preschool children, according to various sources, is 25-90%.

Pinworm photos
Pinworm photos
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Pinworm photos

Infection of the surrounding people with pinworm eggs occurs through a contact-household way, therefore, pinworms are also found in adults, whose children are infected with nematodes (most often these are kids attending preschool institutions).

Usually pinworms are manifested by the following symptoms:

  • itching of the area around the anus, which occurs at night (it is at this time that the female crawls out of the anus), but with severe infection it bothers both day and night;
  • with a large number of parasites that have entered the intestines, itching is observed not only in the area of ​​the anus, but also spreads to the perineum, in women - to the genital area;
  • there may be bedwetting;
  • recurrent abdominal pain;
  • there may be a loosening of the stool to a mushy consistency, sometimes with mucus;
  • insomnia due to itching, irritability;
  • in women - discharge from the genital tract, soreness of sexual intercourse, itching of the genitals, wounds on them due to pinworms crawling into the vulva and vagina;
  • allergic reactions.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Intestinal dysbiosis Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Swelling of the face and eyelids Yes Not

Vlasoglav

Parasitization of the whipworm is an important aspect of health problems in the working population due to the chronic course of the disease, significant damage to the intestines and a long period of invasion - up to 5-6 years.

The prevalence of trichocephalosis in our country affects more often the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth Region and has the character of sporadic morbidity (outbreaks). The number of cases in endemic areas puts trichocephalosis in second place after ascariasis in the general list of nematodes.

Trichocephalosis is a geohelminthiasis that occurs in humans (anthroponosis), characterized by a chronic course with a predominant lesion of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), as well as toxic damage to the nervous system.

The onset of symptoms of trichocephalosis depends on the degree of infection. Single helminths do not cause any manifestations. Vlasoglav, focusing on the wall of the small intestine, injures its mucous membrane, which causes inflammation.

Vlasoglav
Vlasoglav
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Vlasoglav

With a massive infection with trichocephalosis, the digestive tract is disrupted: loss of appetite occurs, pains appear in the right half of the abdomen, and unstable stools. Malfunctions also begin in the activity of the nervous system, manifesting themselves in dizziness, headache, poor sleep, and sometimes convulsions occur. In places of traumatic damage to the intestinal walls with trichocephalosis, a secondary infection may develop, and appendicitis as a complication.

In the absence of adequate treatment, because many people do not even know what trichocephalosis is, a number of complications may develop. Among them, the most serious:

  • deficiency of vitamins and proteins. Which leads to impaired growth and development, this is especially dangerous for children;
  • anemia;
  • peritonitis. It is highly likely to develop if adults pierce the host's large intestine with their sharp and thin tails;
  • polyps and cystic formations;
  • malignant tumors.

Wide ribbon

The broad tapeworm is a flatworm from the order of tapeworms that parasitizes the small intestine. This parasite is considered the largest specimen of tapeworms; mature individuals can reach a length of 20 meters. The worms have a head with longitudinal grooves on the sides, a neck and 4000 members.

In those cases where symptoms of the disease are still present, they appear several weeks after infection.

Symptoms of diphyllobothriasis can be:

  • Pain and discomfort in the abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea (diarrhea)
  • Malaise
  • Itching in the anus

The broad tapeworm parasitizes the small intestine of humans, dogs, cats, pigs and some wild animals that feed on fish. Eggs are excreted in faeces and must enter the reservoir for further development.

Wide ribbon
Wide ribbon
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Wide ribbon

There, in the eggs, a larva (coracidium) of a round shape, covered with cilia, matures. Coracidia are swallowed by freshwater crustaceans - cyclops, and the latter - by fish. In the body of fish, larvae (at this stage they are called plerocercoids) accumulate in the muscles and internal organs, especially in the eggs. Most often, pikes, ruffs, burbots, perch are infected.

When eating insufficiently cooked fish, lightly salted caviar, sliced ​​larvae in the human intestine within 2 months turn into an adult tapeworm. The life span of the parasite reaches 10 years.

Ascaris

The human roundworm is a parasitic worm that lives in the human intestine. This parasitic infection occurs in children and adults and is based and multiplies in the small intestine. The length of the ascaris worms is sometimes up to 40 centimeters, if the infection is started.

Roundworms in the intestine move freely, not fixing themselves on its walls, so they do not remain in the feces after defecation, which greatly complicates the process of primary diagnosis.

Sometimes, during laboratory research, ascaris eggs are found in the feces, but this always happens, therefore, more effective research methods are used to recognize the disease.

Ascaris
Ascaris
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Ascaris

Being in the human body, roundworms can cause him a lot of inconvenience. At the stage of migration through the lungs, fever, cough, chest pain may occur.

Once in the intestines and growing in size, parasites impede the movement of food through the digestive tract and impair digestion and absorption. The patient may be disturbed by recurrent abdominal pain, stool disturbances, nausea, lack of appetite, weakness, frequent colds and weight loss.

In some cases, parasites can mechanically obstruct (clog) the lumen of the intestine or bile ducts, leading to intestinal obstruction, biliary colic, appendicitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis.

Sometimes ascariasis is asymptomatic. In this case, a year after infection, roundworms die and go out with feces into the external environment.

Trichinella

Trichinella (Trichinella spiralis) spends part of its life in the intestines, the other part - in the muscles of the host animal; accordingly, two stages are distinguished: intestinal trichinella and muscular trichinella.

The hosts of Trichinella are various mammals (predators, artiodactyls, insectivores, rodents, pinnipeds), including humans, in whom they cause a special disease - trichinosis. Infection of people most often occurs from pigs, less often from wild animals.

Trichinella
Trichinella
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Trichinella

The life cycle of Trichinella occurs in the body of more than 70 species of mammals and humans. In the lumen of the small intestine, sexually mature females of the parasite give birth to a huge number of larvae, which are carried throughout the body with blood flow.

In the striated muscles (usually these are the muscles of the diaphragm, chewing and eye muscles), the larvae settle and form a capsule around themselves. This capsule is soaked with lime over time. This form can exist for several years.

Trichinella's development cycle continues when the affected muscles are eaten by other animals or humans. The larvae enter the small intestine again and grow into adults. Thus, human infection with Trichinella can occur through the consumption of undercooked meat from wild animals or pigs.

It is almost impossible to diagnose this parasite by medical methods. In rare cases, it can be detected by a blood test. Trichinella symptoms can be completely unexpected: from fever and fever to swelling of the eyelids and face.

Egg
Egg
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Egg

Due to the fact that Trichinella is covered with signs of other diseases, most doctors do not take this parasite into account at all. Since it manifests itself in different ways, then patients turn to doctors of various specializations. In the vast majority, Trichinella in children and adults is treated under other diagnoses. Accordingly, it is wrong and wrong. Hence the sad statistics: in 30% of cases, patients infected with trichinella die.

Hepatic fluke

This helminth belongs to the genus of flatworms and goes through a difficult life period.

The parasite has a structure characteristic of its class:

  • The body is leaf-shaped or lanceolate, tapering at the ends and with pointed edges. The color is dark brown with a gray tint.
  • The length of the liver fluke does not exceed 4 cm.
  • The parasite has 2 suction cups located in front, between which there is a mouth opening.

The defeat of the hepatic fluke is characterized by predominant localization in the liver, namely in the bile ducts, but also frequent localization may be in the pancreas.

Hepatic fluke
Hepatic fluke
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Hepatic fluke

At the larval stage, the helminth enters the liver, where it forms its hepatic passages, while the hepatocytes are destroyed and characteristic clinical manifestations are observed.

Cysts, due to their thick wall, are very resistant to aggressive bile secretion. When fasciola reaches the hepatic ducts, it multiplies there, forming numerous eggs, from which adults later develop and destroy the duct wall, expand it and disrupt the outflow of bile and the architectonics of the hepatic tracts.

When eggs are excreted with part of the bile into the gastrointestinal tract, then only then can they be found in feces.

How to determine the type of worms

It is easiest to find pinworms in the human body, since the parasites independently leave the anus to lay eggs on the skin between the buttocks. It is enough to collect an impression from a skin area located above the anal passage and conduct a study under a microscope.

If there are roundworms in the human body, this will certainly affect the functioning of the lungs, the pathological condition is accompanied by an increase in temperature, a cough with the release of yellow sputum with blood impurities. When analyzing sputum, the presence of ascaris larvae can be detected.

The two most common laboratory methods are blood and stool tests. The detection of antibodies in the blood is considered accurate (this is how the immune system reacts to parasite toxins). However, such diagnostics are expensive. In addition, 150 types of parasites are now known and it is almost impossible to conduct research on everything.

Traditional fecal diagnostics under our conditions is not very informative for several reasons. Firstly, parasites can be detected only with three sampling of material - once a week. This is due to the fact that worms have their own phases of development.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Diarrhea Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Rapid weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Shortness of breath Yes Not

How to be treated

Today, in the arsenal of a parasitologist, there are over 10 anthelmintic drugs, which have their own specific activity against various types of worms.

The main drugs for the treatment of worms:

  • Piperazine (10-30 rubles);
  • Pirantel - Helmintox (80-120 rubles);
  • Pirantel (30-50 rubles);
  • Nemocid, Kombantrin Mebendazole - Vermox (90 rubles);
  • Vermakar, Mebex, Vero-Mebendazole, Termox, Vormin (20 rubles);
  • Albendazole - Nemozole (120-150 rubles);
  • Gelmodol-VM, Vormil Levamisole - Dekaris (70-90 rubles);
  • Carbendacim - Medamin (70-90 rubles);
  • Pirvinium embonate - Pirvinium, Pirkon, Vanquin.

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