Cestodosis In Animals And Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Table of contents:

Cestodosis In Animals And Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention
Cestodosis In Animals And Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Video: Cestodosis In Animals And Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: The Flea Tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum) - Plain and Simple 2023, February
Anonim

Page content

  • Causes and causative agents of cestodosis
  • Symptoms and signs of cestodosis
  • Diagnostics and treatment
  • Prevention of cestodosis
  • You can defeat parasites!

Cestodosis is a helminthic disease caused by flatworms from the tapeworm or tapeworm group. Tapeworms and tapeworms are united under the general name of cestodes, therefore the diseases caused by them are combined under the name of cestodes. The cycle of development and maturation of cestodes is complex and includes a change of intermediate hosts in which the larval stages parasitize.

The life cycle of cestodes is closed when the larvae enter the body of the final host, mature, and the life cycle repeats again. Cestodosis is widespread everywhere. There are about 3000 species of parasitic cestodes.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Causes and causative agents of cestodosis

Cestodoses in humans are caused by two types of cestodes: tapeworms (wide tapeworm, alveococcus, echinococcus), and tapeworms (pork, bovine, dwarf tapeworm).

Tape worms (cestodes)
Tape worms (cestodes)
Image
Image

Tape worms (cestodes)

In the composition of the body of cestodes, one can distinguish the head (scolex), segments (proglottids). The growth of helminths occurs at the expense of the neck - this is the growth zone of the worm. In this zone, new segments are formed, and the distal (mature segments filled with eggs) segments break off and are removed with feces into the external environment. In the bovine tapeworm, the segments have the ability to actively move and independently crawl out of the owner's anus.

What they have in common is that the development cycle occurs with a change in the intermediate host, and the adult parasitizes in the intestine of the final host. To hold on to the intestinal wall and resist the force of peristalsis, tapeworms have bothria (suction gaps), and the chains have suckers and hooks located on the head.

Cestodes do not have their own digestive system; nutrients are absorbed by outgrowths (microtrichia) on the entire surface of the body.

Released into the environment, the eggs, together with the oncosphere larvae in them, are swallowed by the intermediate host. Small crustaceans (broad tapeworm), cattle (bovine tapeworm), pigs (pork tapeworm), rodents, humans, fleas (dwarf tapeworm), as well as representatives of the canid family (echinococcus, alveococcus) can become intermediate hosts.

Bovine tapeworm
Bovine tapeworm
Image
Image

Bovine tapeworm

Once in the intestines of the intermediate host, a larva emerges from the ripened eggs, which each representative of tapeworms has its own name. For bovine and pork tapeworm, these are Finns or cysticercus, for dwarf tapeworm, these are cysticercoids. In echinococci, the larval stage is represented by an echinococcal bladder covered with a layer of mucus. In alveococcus, this is the alveococcal Finn.

The broad tapeworm is characterized by the presence of two intermediate hosts. The first is a small crustacean, in its body the larva is represented by procercoids, representatives of freshwater fish become the second intermediate host, and the larvae in their body are represented by plerocercoids.

The ultimate host for all tapeworms is humans. Infection with cestodosis occurs orally through poorly washed hands, vegetables, fruits, as well as thermally poorly processed meat of fish, pigs, cattle and small ruminants.

For a dwarf tapeworm, a person can become both an intermediate and a final host.

Dwarf tapeworm
Dwarf tapeworm
Image
Image

Dwarf tapeworm

Being swallowed by a human, the larvae enter the small intestine, where they attach to the wall and mature to a sexually mature individual, causing the development of one or another cestodosis.

It should be noted that some of the cestodes parasitize in the liver, lungs, brain, causing corresponding changes in them. Such cestodes are alveococcus and echinococcus.

Symptoms and signs of cestodosis

Cestodes in humans are primarily manifested by symptoms of intoxication, since cestodes release substances toxic to the human body. The symptoms of intoxication syndrome are loss of appetite, weakness, lethargy, headaches, and dizziness. Allergic skin rashes usually go together with signs of intoxication.

The most striking rashes of the urticaria type appear at the beginning of the parasitism of the cestodes, with the long-term coexistence of the cestode and humans, allergic reactions become less obvious - the body stops responding to the worm.

The process of parasitizing cestodes is associated with robbing the host's body of nutrients, which is manifested in the depleted state of the latter. In addition to exhaustion, for example, when parasitizing a broad tapeworm, manifestations of megaloblastic anemia and folic acid deficiency may develop.

In this case, glossitis joins the symptoms of intoxication, the tongue becomes "lacquered" due to the smoothing of the papillae, cracks appear, the color of the tongue is bright crimson. Disorders of the nervous system develop in the form of unpleasant sensations in the limbs, and in severe conditions, paresis and paralysis. The main picture of such anemia is reflected by a complete blood count.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Intestinal dysbiosis Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Swelling of the face and eyelids Yes Not Do you want to get rid of parasites quickly and permanently? The answer is here

Intestinal cestodoses, when the helminth reaches a significant size, can manifest in the form of obstructive intestinal obstruction. In this case, the patient gets a consultation with a surgeon.

Intestinal cestodoses are manifested by abdominal pains of unclear localization, as well as stool disorders in the form of constipation or diarrhea, flatulence is possible. These clinical manifestations are the result of mechanical trauma to the intestinal mucosa by the attachment organs of the cestodes.

If the causative agent of cestodosis is echinococcus, then the clinic changes depending on the organ affected by the finnose stage of the worm. Whatever organ the Finn is in, over time it grows intensively, and increasing, compresses the surrounding tissues, leading to their atrophy.

If the Finna is localized in the lungs, then bronchitis and pneumonia will be present in the clinic. If the brain is affected, then the patient will suffer from persistent headaches. A growing Finn can compress the spinal cord, which can result in paresis and paralysis of the limbs.

If the Finn is located in the liver, then the patient is worried about dull pain in the right hypochondrium arising from the stretching of the liver capsule and not associated with food intake, there is a feeling of heaviness.

The bladder fluid contained in the echinococcal bladder is very toxic and allergenic. If it ruptures, anaphylactic shock may develop.

The alveococcal finna located in the liver and with its small size does not bother the patient with anything, but as it grows, a tumor-like formation begins to be palpated in the liver. There is a feeling of discomfort in the right hypochondrium. In the center of the Finn it is necrotic. Finna has invasive growth, i.e. does not move nearby tissues, but grows in them, causing their destruction. When sprouting into blood vessels, metastasis to other organs (lungs, brain) is possible.

Alveococcal Finna can compress nearby bile ducts, leading to the development of obstructive jaundice.

Complications of cestodosis caused by alveococcus is the germination of Finns into nearby organs, namely the diaphragm, kidney, stomach.

Death with alveococcal cestodosis occurs as a result of metastasis to the brain, as well as due to liver failure.

Diagnostics and treatment

  • Fenasal;
  • Dichlosal;
  • Praziquantel;
  • Albendazole;
  • Biltricide;
  • Niclosamide;
  • various auxiliary phytopreparations with an active antihelminthic effect.
Niclosamide
Niclosamide
Image
Image

It is worth noting that some types of cestodes are resistant to drug treatment, and sometimes it is necessary to undergo two courses of treatment. While others are effectively treatable in one course. Usually, a single dose of the drug is used, based on recommendations for one kilogram of weight. In cases where drug treatment does not have the desired effect, surgical methods of treatment are used, for example, excision of the parasite. This method is effective in the case of a worm larva or cyst located under the skin.

Praziquantel and Albendazole are available in some countries by prescription only, and patients are usually treated on an outpatient basis. The human digestive system practically does not absorb antiglust preparations, they dissolve in the intestines, destroy parasites and are excreted along with feces. The scolex tapeworm (neck and head) must come out of the patient's intestines with feces, otherwise, if the scolex does not collapse, the worm can grow back to its previous size.

Praziquantel
Praziquantel
Image
Image

Laxatives are often prescribed to patients so that most of the parasites holding onto the hardened stool can escape. During treatment, vomiting may occur, so antiemetics are prescribed without fail. This eliminates the risk of re-infection when swallowing larvae that have settled in the esophagus.

Cestodes are especially common in countries where the consumption of raw fish is common, such as Eastern Europe, Scandinavia and Japan. Undercooked or raw freshwater fish such as salmon are the most common source of parasites.

Only the dwarf tapeworm is transmitted from person to person. Its entire life cycle can occur in the body of one host. This type of tapeworm is currently the most common on earth.

Prevention of cestodosis

It is necessary to follow the rules of hygiene, that is, be sure to wash your hands before and after using the toilet. Any contact with wild or domestic animals should be used with caution, veterinarians should work with gloves.

Any food must be thoroughly washed and cooked at the correct temperature.

Universal prevention measures:

  • limiting the consumption of raw freshwater fish (sushi is not dangerous, since all fish for sushi are pre-frozen, and the eggs of parasites die at minus 4 degrees Celsius);
  • Meat must be cooked at a minimum of 70 degrees F (for the whole piece) and at least 60 degrees F for minced meat;
  • it is necessary to freeze fresh meat and fish for 24 hours;
  • when traveling to third world countries, fruits and vegetables must be well washed or thermally processed.

Popular by topic