Invasion: What Is It? Helminthic Invasion In Children And Adults

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Invasion: What Is It? Helminthic Invasion In Children And Adults
Invasion: What Is It? Helminthic Invasion In Children And Adults
Video: Invasion: What Is It? Helminthic Invasion In Children And Adults
Video: Гельминты #2. Острицы. / Worms #2. Pinworms. 2023, February
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  • Flat worms
  • Round worms
  • The first signs and symptoms of helminthiasis
  • Features in children
  • Complications
  • Treatment of invasions

    • In children
    • In adults
  • During pregnancy
  • Prevention
  • You can defeat parasites!

More than 250 species of parasitic worms are known, about 60 of them are found in Russia. Each helminthiasis has its own geographical distribution, which depends on climatic conditions, national traditions, the level of culture and the well-being of the population.

The life cycle of parasites consists of several stages, each of which requires certain conditions. The larval stages take place in the environment or in the body of an intermediate host; mature individuals develop in the body of the final host.

What to do in such a situation? To get started, we recommend reading this article. This article details the methods of dealing with parasites. We also recommend contacting a specialist. Read the article >>>

Human parasites are of two types: flat and round worms.

Flat worms

Trematoda class (flukes). Characteristic features: leaf-shaped body and 2 suction cups. The sizes depend on the type of parasite and range from 2-3 mm to 3-5 cm. The main representatives: hepatic, lanceolate, feline, pulmonary fluke, blood fluke. Sexually mature worms parasitize in the bile ducts, lung tissue, blood vessels and cause diseases - trematodes

Fluke worms (trematodes)
Fluke worms (trematodes)
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  • Class Cestodes (tapeworms) - cause cestodes. The body has a ribbon-like shape and consists of separate segments - segments. The length of cestodes reaches 15 m. They live in the intestinal lumen, attaching to the wall using hooks or suction cups. The larval stages also affect other organs. The main representatives: bovine and pork tapeworm, broad tapeworm, echinococcus, alveococcus.
  • Tape worms (cestodes)
    Tape worms (cestodes)
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    Tape worms (cestodes)

Round worms

Class Nematodes (roundworms) - cause nematodes. The body is fusiform or filiform, round in section. The size of the parasites reaches 40 cm. The main representatives are roundworms, pinworms, human whipworms, trichinella, filariae, hookworms. Mature individuals live in the intestines, larvae - in muscle tissue, circulatory and lymphatic systems, and other organs

Roundworms (nematodes)
Roundworms (nematodes)
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Roundworms (nematodes)

Each helminthiasis has its own name: trichinosis, ascariasis, enterobiasis, fascioliasis, etc.

The first signs and symptoms of helminthiasis

It is difficult to recognize helminthic invasion at the initial stage of development - signs of helminth infection are disguised as other diseases. Parasites most often affect the organs of the digestive system, when infected, dyspeptic disorders almost always occur, vitamin deficiency and anemia develop.

Symptoms of helminth infection:

  • discomfort and pain in the abdomen, bloating, flatulence, stool disturbance, nausea;
  • a sharp change in body weight up or down;
  • dysuria;
  • children experience growth retardation due to a deficiency of nutrients;
  • appetite increases or disappears altogether;
  • with enterobiasis, itching appears in the anal area, which intensifies at night;
  • frequent colds;
  • mood swings, decreased performance, impaired memory and attention;
  • pale skin, circles under the eyes, worsening hair condition;
  • in some cases, worms or their particles can be seen in the feces.

Get tested for worms

Symptoms Answer Itching in the anal area Yes Not Dysbacteriosis Yes Not General weakness Yes Not Dry cough Yes Not The appearance of allergic reactions Yes Not Weight loss Yes Not Headaches Yes Not Dizziness Yes Not Increased irritability Yes Not Swelling of the face and eyelids Yes Not

Features in children

Most often, helminthic invasion in children manifests itself in the form of ascariasis, enterobiasis or trichocephalosis. The danger of catching helminths lies in wait at the age after six months, when the child begins to actively explore the world, does not always follow the rules of hygiene and takes objects into his mouth. Infection occurs through soil or sand, dirty toys, floors, contact with pets, cockroaches or flies. Some of the larvae of worms can be inhaled by the child.

In addition, the child has not yet strengthened immunity, the acidity of the stomach is insufficient (in adults, many types of helminth larvae die precisely under the influence of acidic environments). Symptoms of helminthic infestation in children usually manifest as follows:

  • upset stool (constipation or diarrhea);
  • sleep disorders;
  • pain in the abdomen (from fleeting, without specific localization to strong, resembling a "sharp" abdomen;
  • mental disorder (malice, irritability, constant whims and crying);
  • grinding teeth in sleep;
  • the appearance of allergic dermatitis, pustules;
  • asthmatic manifestations;
  • dysbiosis;
  • changes in the digestive tract;
  • anemia;
  • underweight;
  • frequent colds or acute respiratory viral infections with a protracted nature.

Complications

Parasites, when they are in the body for a long time, release toxins that lead to atherosclerosis, heart disease and even cancer. Tapeworms, which grow to a large size, can block the intestines and lead to peritonitis of the abdominal region. In especially dangerous cases, when the human brain is affected, epileptic seizures, attacks of dementia, and generally problems with memory and orientation come to the fore.

How to treat pinworms in a child
How to treat pinworms in a child
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Visual impairment is also on the list of unpleasant consequences. In the most severe case, when the patient refuses to receive medical attention, the invasion can be fatal.

If the patient is a little more fortunate, he will acquire a bunch of chronic diseases: diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, dermatitis, persistent immune disorders, pancreatitis, colitis.

Worm infestations differ in that the symptoms, even with the cure of the disease, may not pass, but only intensify due to the appearance of a chronic disease. To avoid this, you need high-quality diagnostics and a timely visit to a doctor.

Treatment of invasions

The choice of the drug, its dosage and frequency of use can only be prescribed by a doctor. Unauthorized use of such drugs can lead to a worsening of the condition.

In children

After detecting the type of parasite, the doctor prescribes a schematic treatment for the child, which includes drugs in the form of tablets and suspensions that have an anthelmintic effect:

  • "Piperazine" in the form of a suspension is suitable for children from 6 months;
  • "Pirantel" ("Helmintox", "Nemocid");
  • "Mebendazole" ("Vermox", "Vormin") is prescribed to children over 2 years of age;
  • "Albendozol" ("Nemozol", "Aldozol") has been used since 2 years;
  • "Levamisole" ("Dekaris") is used from 3 years old.
Pirantel
Pirantel
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Additional medicines are also used:

  • various adsorbents ("Phosphalugel", "Smecta") to prevent intoxication of the body;
  • antihistamines ("Diazolin", "Suprastin") to prevent allergic reactions.

In adults

All modern anthelmintic drugs can be divided into broad-spectrum and selective agents:

  • "Albendazole" ("Nemazol") is a broad spectrum drug, effective against nematodes, mixed helminthic invasions, echinococcosis, giardiasis;
  • drugs acting on roundworms: Levamisole, (Dekaris), Vermox (Mebendazole, Vormin), Piperazine, Pirantel (Helmintox), Medamin;
  • drugs acting on tapeworms: "Niclosamide" ("Fenasal"), "Mepacrine";
  • drugs acting on flatworms: Chloxil, Bithionol, Praziquantel.
Nemozole for pinworms
Nemozole for pinworms
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As in the case of the treatment of infantile infestation, adsorbing drugs and antihistamines are taken in parallel.

During pregnancy

Detection of invasions in pregnant women is not uncommon. To eliminate the risk of infection of the newborn and prevent toxic effects on the body, antihelminthic drugs are also taken. But it is strictly forbidden to do this in the first 3 months of pregnancy, since the risk of harming the developing fetus is several times higher than the harm from worms. For medicinal purposes, the drug "Piperazine" is suitable for pregnant women, the treatment is carried out under the supervision of a specialist.

Prevention

As a preventive measure against worms, doctors advise to follow the following recommendations:

  • be sure to visit medical institutions regularly, for the timely detection of helminthic invasion;
  • observance of personal hygiene - often thorough hand washing, timely change of linen;
  • heat treatment of all types of meat;
  • use well-washed vegetables for food;
  • quarterly deworming of existing animals;
  • exclude swimming in suspicious bodies of water.

Despite the fact that it is almost impossible to protect yourself from the ingestion of worms into the body, everyone is able to be attentive to their health, to visit medical institutions in time to pass the necessary tests. By following the recommendations and preventive measures, you will protect yourself and your loved ones from possible health risks.

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