Table of contents:
- Mechanism of action
- Release form
- Indications for use
- Side effects
- Similar medicines
There are different forms of drug release of the synthetic hormonal drug Prednisolone: tablets, injections, ointment, eye drops. The action of the drug is aimed at reducing edema, inflammation and allergies. The drug should be taken with caution, as side effects may occur during treatment. Prednisolone has contraindications.
- 1 Mechanism of action
- 2 Release form
- 3 Indications for use
- 4 Dosage
5 Side effects
5.1 How to deal with side effects
- 6 Contraindications
- 7 Similar medicines
Mechanism of action
The action of the drug is aimed at arresting inflammatory processes, the drug acts on enzymes that break down proteins in the inflamed areas and reduces the level of their concentration. The drug prevents the formation of adhesions in places of injury and inflammation.
Prednisolone is a powerful anti-allergic agent that suppresses the secretion of histamine and other substances that provoke the development of an allergic reaction.
The medicine enhances the function of adrenaline - this hormone increases blood pressure. Prednisolone affects metabolism, fat, water-salt and carbohydrate metabolism, reduces the level of protein in the blood, promotes the breakdown of protein and adipose tissue. Under the influence of the drug, the production of insulin increases, an increased amount of fat is produced.
Reviews of patients undergoing treatment indicate that Prednisolone is a fairly effective remedy for the treatment of chronic diseases, it helps well in emergency cases. Patients rarely talk about side effects. A decrease in immunity, an increase in appetite is often observed.
Prednisolone has a different release form. This hormonal agent is used topically, intravenously, intramuscularly, and orally.
The medicine is made:
- in ampoules as a solution for injection: for intravenous and intramuscular administration;
- in tablet form, the active substance is prednisolone (5 mg);
- in the form of an ointment for external problems;
- in drip form for eye treatment.
Prednisolone (solution for injection) is administered both intravenously and intramuscularly, and intraarticularly. In critical cases, when severe symptoms occur, the drug is administered intravenously, if for one reason or another this method of drug administration is not suitable, the injection is given intramuscularly. The drug in this case will begin to act much more slowly. Prednisolone injections are given in urgent cases when the patient, for example, has developed anaphylactic shock. Inside the joint, the drug is injected with damage to the joint tissues. The daily dose depends on the degree of the disease and should not exceed 1,200 mg.
For topical use, an ointment is used, which is smeared on problem areas with a thin layer. The composition of the ointment, in addition to the active substance, includes glycerin, paraffin, stearic acid. Ointment treats skin diseases.
Treatment with drops is carried out three times, instilling 2 drops of Prednisolone solution into the conjunctival cavity. Drops are effective in the treatment of iritis, blepharitis, uveitis, allergic conjunctivitis. An indication for the use of drops will be an eye injury, the medicine also helps after surgery.
Indications for use
Prednisone is used to treat rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis. The medicine is effective for skin problems: eczema and atopic dermatitis. With the help of this drug, bronchial asthma is treated, especially in the form of status asthmaticus, and critical forms of allergic reactions.
The drug helps to cope with the following diseases:
- lupus erythematosus;
- ankylosing spondylitis;
- leukemia in various forms;
- swelling of the brain;
The drug is excreted from the body along with urine.
The dosage is calculated by the doctor. The dose and form of the drug depend on the disease and its severity. In the course of treatment, the general condition of the patient is monitored. Refusal from the drug should not be abrupt, the dose should be reduced gradually.
Prednisolone injections are administered in cases where the patient is in a life-threatening condition. The victim is injected intravenously with an increased dose of the drug at short intervals, after which a dropper with the drug is placed for another 4 - 5 days. The daily dose of a child under one year old is up to 3 mg / kg, for children over one year old - 2 mg / kg. If a large joint is affected, no more than 50 mg of the drug is administered, for medium joints this dose should not exceed 25 mg, and if the joint is small - no more than 10 mg.
In tablets, the daily norm for adults is no more than 60 mg, in emergency cases - up to 250 mg, for children - up to 2 mg / kg per day. When the drug is discontinued, the dosage begins to be reduced in stages. The dose is reduced by 1/8 every week. When it is required to cancel the drug at an accelerated rate, the amount of the dose is reduced by 1/5, while the drug is taken after one day. Rapid withdrawal of the drug is accompanied by stimulation of the adrenal glands.
Prednisolone is a potent drug. The drug can not only bring health benefits, but also cause side effects, and if taken incorrectly can even harm human health.
Prednisolone has side effects:
- Decreased muscle tone - a decrease in muscle volume may be observed.
- The drug removes calcium, what is the reason for fragility of bones, bone fractures are possible.
- Prednisolone affects the work of the digestive system and very often leads to an increase in appetite, in some cases nausea and vomiting may occur.
- Taking the medicine can adversely affect the condition of the skin, on which acne and stretch marks form, wounds do not heal for a long time.
- The drug is the cause of the development of candidiasis.
- With a sudden decrease in the dose, an increase in intracranial pressure is observed, especially children are susceptible to this ailment.
- When taken, intraocular pressure increases, and with prolonged use of the drug, there is a high risk of developing cataracts, glaucoma and other eye diseases.
- Taking Prednisolone medication negatively affects the state of the nervous system, during the course of the therapeutic course depression may develop, hallucinations may appear, and sleep disorders are possible.
It is better not to use prednisone and alcohol together. Small doses of alcohol may not affect a person's condition in any way; with increased doses of alcohol and combined administration with Prednisolone, the side effects of the drug increase, especially those associated with the function of the nervous system.
Side effects begin to develop actively with a sharp withdrawal of the drug Prednisolone. The patient has impaired adrenal function, body temperature rises, pain syndrome develops in the joints and muscles. The general well-being worsens.
Instructions for the use of Prednisolone should be carefully studied. Even if the drug was prescribed by a doctor, you should not neglect the information contained in the instructions.
How to deal with side effects
For the medicine to act more gently, it is better to take it with meals. This will significantly reduce the risk of disrupting the digestive system. To maintain a protein balance, it is necessary to introduce a diet rich in protein.
To eliminate the risk of fractures and osteoporosis due to the removal of calcium from the body under the action of Prednisolone, you need to take medications containing calcium, drink vitamin D.
With the appearance of psychosis and the development of diseases associated with the functioning of the nervous system, certain types of antidepressants should not be taken - this will not lead to the desired effect, on the contrary, mental disorders will increase under the influence of glucocorticosteroids.
In the presence of certain diseases, the drug is not recommended for use, since it can worsen the patient's condition. The following ailments are considered contraindications:
- infectious diseases of a viral, fungal and bacterial nature;
- stomach ulcer;
- severe stage of hypertension;
The drug penetrates the placental barrier, therefore, Prednisolone is prescribed during pregnancy in extreme cases. The dose should not exceed 5 mg. Large doses of the drug are dangerous to fetal health. During the first trimester, it is better not to use the drug. Prednisone slows down the growth of the child and leads to a decrease in the production of endogenous hormones. The child may develop serious problems with the adrenal glands.
Prednisone is prescribed for children in extremely rare cases. During the therapeutic course, the child needs to be under the supervision of a doctor. During the period of active growth of the baby, it is better not to use the medicine, otherwise it will cause growth retardation. The drug can be difficult to tolerate in children.
Prednisolone has analogues. According to the active substance that is part of the drug, several similar drugs are distinguished:
- "Prednisolone Nycomed";
- "Prednisolone sodium phosphate".
There are drugs that have similar therapeutic properties:
- "Prednisolone Nycomed";
Prednisolone Nycomed is the most popular analogue drug that has the same indications for use. Prednisolone Nycomed is the trade name of the drug, the international non-proprietary name (INN) is Prednisolone.
If a doctor has prescribed the use of Prednisolone, the drug should be taken only after reading the instructions. It is necessary to strictly observe the dosage and carefully study the points about contraindications and side effects.