Types Of Worms In Humans, Which Can Be Infected

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Types Of Worms In Humans, Which Can Be Infected
Types Of Worms In Humans, Which Can Be Infected
Video: Types Of Worms In Humans, Which Can Be Infected
Video: Microbiology of Parasites 2023, February
Anonim

Worms as vivid representatives of parasitism on Earth are a big problem not only for individual infected people, but also for entire countries, where they sometimes become a real disaster. Usually, when people mention worms, they mostly imagine small white worms living in the human intestine. But in fact, the types of worms in humans are extremely diverse, both in size and in terms of duration of existence. Some types of helminths (this is how worms are called in the medical literature) can be viewed only in a powerful optical device, but there are species that reach a length of 18-20 meters and parasitize inside a person for up to twenty years.

Content

  • 1 What types of worms are found in humans
  • 2 Features of worms living in humans
  • 3 Symptoms of infection with worms
  • 4 Treatment and prevention of helminthic invasion (infection)
  • 5 Folk remedies for worms

Infection of people (especially children) with worms is a frequent occurrence. Eggs of helminths, which the female reproduces in huge quantities, are extremely resilient and adapted to the internal conditions of stay in the human body and to the external environment into which they enter with feces.

The shell of eggs reliably protects them from mechanical external influences and climatic factors, including heat and cold. There they wait for a favorable opportunity to enter the organism of their “host”, where they immediately become fixed, develop, transform into ready sexually mature individuals and again infect the “host” with a gigantic number of eggs, which begin a new stage of reproduction. Next, we will take a closer look at what worms are in humans.

What types of worms are found in humans

The classification of helminths can be based on various characteristics - for example, according to the place of their parasitism in the human body. On this basis, they are divided into intestinal and extraintestinal.

Intestinal worms include parasites that have adapted to live in the gastrointestinal tract. These are round and tapeworms.

It is possible to classify the varieties of helminths by the way they enter the body of the main host. On this basis, they are subdivided into contagious, biohelminthic and geohelminthic.

Contagious worms include those that an infected person passes on to a healthy person during communication. For children, the transfer objects may include toys. This group of helminths includes pinworms and dwarf tapeworm.

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Biohelminthic worms include those that are transmitted to humans through communication with animals, as well as in the case of eating poorly thermally processed meat. Animals in this case are called "intermediate" hosts of helminths. This species includes bovine and pork tapeworms.

The geohelminthic types of worms include those whose part of their life is spent in the soil (earth), as a result of which their name has the prefix "geo" Infection with this type of worms can occur through unwashed fruits or vegetables. This group includes helminths such as trichina and roundworm.

Features of worms living in a person

Let's start with round parasites - these are nematodes. They have an elongated round body. Their life cycle occurs with a change of owners. This infection is common in children. These include the following types of worms.

  1. Roundworms, parasitizing in the intestine, and they easily move through it, poison the entire host organism and live in it for more than a year. Their length reaches half a meter.
  2. Hookworm and nekator (by great similarity, they are combined into "hookworm"). 15 mm long, live in the duodenum, feed on blood. They can enter a person both through the mouth with food and through the skin (for example, barefoot on an infected soil area).
  3. Vlasoglav up to 4 cm long. It feeds on blood, clinging to the mucous membrane of the large or cecum. It has been a parasite in humans for five years.
  4. Pinworms are small parasites, the length of which reaches 1 cm. They parasitize in the large and small intestines. Life expectancy is about 1.5 months. Children are most susceptible to infection.
  5. Trichinella settles in the heart, lungs, eyes. Length - no more than 1 cm. Penetrate a person with food - poorly thermally processed meat. They live up to two years.

Flatworms are categorized as flukes and cestodes.

Trematodes are helminths with a leaf-shaped body with two suction cups (one is used to attach to the host's body, the other for nutrition). Body size can be from a few millimeters to one and a half meters. The development of such types of worms occurs with the use of an intermediate "host" by them. In the main "host" they live in the digestive tract. They do not need their own digestive system, because they parasitize completely at the expense of the food resources of their "host". With a strong infection with this helminth, people begin to lose weight, even if they eat a lot. The following parasites are referred to as trematodes.

  1. Hepatic fluke - helminth up to 20 mm, lives in the liver. A person can become infected with it by eating poorly processed fish.
  2. Siberian fluke is a helminth up to 1.5 cm. It lives in the gallbladder. These helminths, their types are found in our country, but there are also tropical types.
  3. Schistosomes are trematodes that live in the host's blood. They live in warm countries. 30 mm long, their diameter is 1 mm. A feature of this parasite is that its female lives all her life in a special fold of the male. They live like this for several years inseparably and produce a huge number of eggs. A person can contract schistosoma while swimming.

Cestodes are worms with a segmental body structure. Segments successively grow from the head part of the helminth and during its life they move further and further to the tail part. As they move, a huge number of eggs are fertilized and grow in them. Having reached the tail end, they fall away from the uterine body, with human feces they enter the external environment, where they begin the next phase of life. In the main host, they live in the intestines, clinging to special suction cups up to 20 m.

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Let's consider the types of helminths in more detail.

  1. Pork tapeworm - helminth up to 2 m, lives in the small intestine. Thermally poorly processed pork is the source of this infection. The human body for the pork tapeworm is an intermediate host, which follows from its very name.
  2. Echinococcus is a helminth that also uses humans as an intermediate host. Dogs and cats are the main carriers. Echinococcal colonies cannot be treated in humans, but only surgically removed.
  3. Bovine tapeworm (up to 10 m). It lives in the small intestine, for which it has suction cups. Thermally poorly processed beef meat is the main source (that's why it is called bovine).
  4. The broad tapeworm (up to 20 m) lives in the small intestine. Infection occurs through thermally poorly processed crayfish and fish.

A wide variety of types of helminths in humans cause serious dysfunction.

Symptoms of worm infestation

The symptoms of the disease depend on the type of helminths that hit a person. They can be very diverse, because these parasites are able to live in almost all parts of the body and organs of a person. Varieties of worms cause the most common symptoms of infection:

  • itching in the anal area;
  • diarrhea and other stool disorders;
  • bloating;
  • flatulence;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • weight reduction;
  • increased appetite;
  • muscle pain;
  • sleep disorders;
  • headaches;
  • allergic manifestations;
  • increased fatigue.

Treatment and prevention of helminthic invasion (infection)

The types of helminthiases (groups of infectious diseases) depend on the type of helminth and its localization in the human body. In this case, helminthiases can proceed covertly or severely, sometimes up to death. In general, there are as many helminthiases as there are all types of helminths, and so far no universal cure has been found for all parasites. Therefore, for effective treatment, you need to know exactly what kind of parasites a person has become infected with.

Here are some of the most commonly used drugs used to combat these parasites:

  • Albendazole;
  • Pirantel;
  • Mebendazole;
  • Levamisole;
  • Carbendacim;
  • Piperazine.

It should be noted that often the primary treatment destroys only adults of the worms, but their eggs and larvae remain viable in the body, and after some time after treatment, the worms can again make themselves felt with symptoms. Therefore, the repeated use of these drugs is possible.

Folk remedies for worms

Here are some of the folk remedies for worms, time-tested and with invariably positive results. In everyday life, each person should be able to fight this parasite with affordable and cheap means. These products include pumpkin and flax seeds (both raw and in the form of a decoction), pumpkin oil, onion decoction, decoctions of wormwood, tansy and ginger, garlic with milk.

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But it is better not to be infected with helminths at all. For this, well-known preventive measures should be applied - washing hands, processing vegetables and fruits, conducting thermal processing of pork, beef and fish, observing caution when dealing with pets. Constant adherence to these simple rules will drastically reduce the risk of helminth infection.

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