Pinworm: How Can You Get Infected, How Are Transmitted, Ways Of Infection

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Pinworm: How Can You Get Infected, How Are Transmitted, Ways Of Infection
Pinworm: How Can You Get Infected, How Are Transmitted, Ways Of Infection
Video: Pinworm: How Can You Get Infected, How Are Transmitted, Ways Of Infection
Video: What Is Pinworm Infections ? ( FAQ & Answers ) 2023, February

The defeat of the body by pinworms is called enterobiasis. These helminths are small white parasites. They penetrate the human body, overcoming the oral cavity. Basically, these parasites are infected in childhood, but pinworms can also infect an adult body. Worm infestation can cause an itchy sensation in the anal ring, digestive system disorders, allergies, inflammation of the genitals, so it is very important to know how pinworms are transmitted in order to avoid infection.


  • 1 General characteristics
  • 2 Development cycle
  • 3 Spreading eggs
  • 4 Ways of transmission
  • 5 Symptoms of infection

General characteristics

The pinworm is a round helminth that reaches a length of 2 to 12 centimeters. Adult parasites are localized in the lower part of the small intestine, in the large intestine. Interestingly, sexually mature females are able to leave the anus after moving to the rectal area for breeding on the epidermis in the perianal area.

Pinworm infestation can be recognized by several symptoms:

  • the presence of itching sensations in the perianal zone;
  • decreased appetite;
  • painful sensations in the abdominal region.

Development cycle

The main source of helminth infection is the patient, on whose hands parasitic eggs remain after scratching the itchy areas. Further, there are several possible ways for the eggs of parasites to enter the oral cavity.

  1. People independently swallow the eggs left on his hands. Such infection usually occurs when personal hygiene rules are not followed. Pathogenic particles can remain on the hands by contact with toilet seats, bed linen, toys, household items that have been touched by an infectious person.
  2. Helminth eggs are capable of infecting the human body, getting along with dust into its nasopharynx.

Spreading eggs

Pinworms infect only the human body - it is its final and only host. Basically, this pathology is found in families in which babies are growing. Pinworms are able to be actively transmitted from person to person, therefore, when diagnosing this pathology in any family member, everyone must undergo treatment. This spread is due to the biological characteristics of the helminth. The egg laying process takes place:

  • in the anal area;
  • on bed linen;
  • in the area of ​​the gluteal muscle;
  • it is accompanied by the release of isovaleric acid, which causes severe itching in humans.

Due to scratching, parasitic eggs move to the fingers or under the nails, from which they spread through the environment, and settle together with dust particles. In the environment, they can maintain their ability to live for a sufficiently long time, which significantly expands the pathways of infection with enterobiasis.

Often, infection is diagnosed in babies who are 5-10 years old. Sometimes there is an invasion of crumbs that have not reached 2 years of age. Therefore, these helminths are also called children's pinworms.

A pregnant woman should not sound the alarm after contracting enterobiasis, since these helminths are not capable of harming an unborn baby. However, in this position, the risk of infection of the baby during childbirth increases. Therefore, a pregnant woman is obliged to eliminate pinworms from her body using special medications.

Transmission routes

How can you get pinworms? Several factors usually contribute to this.

  1. Combing the anal ring area where the eggs were laid by the female. After that, the person, without washing his hands, begins to eat or touch his lips with his fingers.
  2. Handshake.
  3. Swallowing eggs on contact with bedding.
  4. Ingestion of contaminated dust.
  5. Contact with contaminated dishes, clothing, toys, household items. You can get infected from all objects that the patient touched.
  6. Taking care of an infected person without strict adherence to hygiene standards.
  7. Refusal to wash food.
  8. Transfer of helminth eggs to food with the help of flies or other insects.
  9. Contact with pets with parasite eggs on their fur.

The following factors increase the effectiveness of pinworm infection routes:

  • long nails;
  • eating food while working at a laptop, computer;
  • neglect of hygiene, for example, refusal to wash hands after contact with animals, visiting the toilet room;
  • eating in bed.

How can you get a pinworm? The risk of parasitic infestation in childhood can be increased by:

  • the bad habit of licking your fingers or biting your nails;
  • constant craving to gnaw various objects, including toys;
  • the presence of loose teeth, which the baby often touches with his fingers, scratches, looses;
  • neglect of the rules of personal hygiene after using the toilet;
  • sharing personal hygiene items with other people.

Symptoms of infection

After the transfer of eggs to a new host has passed into the final phase, symptoms of a parasitic presence in the body gradually begin to develop.

The main symptom is a feeling of severe itching in the anal ring area. This itching is worse before bedtime.


Additional symptoms include:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • alternation of diarrhea and constipation;
  • regularly catching colds or flu;
  • colds, which are characterized by the duration and difficulty of healing;
  • the occurrence of conjunctivitis;
  • unexplained cough;
  • the presence of intestinal colic;
  • the appearance of mucus in the stool;
  • stomach ache.

These symptoms in babies can appear together:

  • with sleep disturbance;
  • with increased fatigue;
  • with lethargy;
  • with the appearance of nightmares;
  • with concern;
  • with irritability.

The appearance of such symptoms is due to the fact that toxins appearing as a result of the vital activity of parasites have a negative effect on the nervous system. This pathology can also cause enuresis, which consists in urinary incontinence, and it can also provoke the appearance of abundant discharge from the female genital organs.

In the presence of a large number of pinworms in the intestinal region or with frequent re-infection, additional symptoms may join the main symptoms. Among them are:

  • regular headache;
  • severe dizziness;
  • spread of painful sensations in the right abdominal region. In some cases, this pain is confused with appendicitis;
  • memory impairment;
  • the appearance of false urge to defecate;
  • regularly occurring bloating;
  • a feeling of attention disorders;
  • frequent constipation or diarrhea;
  • the development of dermatitis in the perianal zone;
  • fainting may sometimes occur.

Also, severe itching can provoke the development of purulent inflammations due to the attachment of bacterial flora to damaged tissues. Inflammation can affect the epidermis or underlying tissues, causing paraproctitis.

To avoid the appearance of this unpleasant symptomatology, people should carefully study how enterobiasis is transmitted in order to block the possibility of helminth eggs entering their body.

Usually they are infected by those who are inattentive to their own health, refusing to comply with the simplest rules of personal hygiene. And such an attitude can harm the health of the patient's loved ones, since pinworms can actively move from one family member to another.

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