Table of contents:
- Danger of infection
- Features of the structure and life of parasites
- Other habitats
- Diagnostic methods
- Preventive and therapeutic measures
Video: Where Do Pinworms Live In The Human Body: Habitat
Pinworms are parasitic worms that belong to the class of nematodes. Once in the human body, they cause a disease such as enterobiasis. Initially, the larvae enter the small intestine, and the adult continues its life in the large intestine. Pinworms lay eggs around the anus, causing severe itching.
- 1 Danger of infection
- 2 Features of the structure and life of parasites
- 3 Other habitats
- 4 Diagnostic methods
- 5 Preventive and curative measures
Danger of infection
At risk are children under 12 years old, as well as people with reduced immunity. Infection occurs when the larvae enter the oral cavity through dirty hands, unwashed food, through contact with animals or infected people.
The mild form of enterobiasis is characterized by slight itching sensations in the anal area before bedtime. Symptoms usually go away after three days, but return after two weeks. It is during this period that re-infection occurs and the larvae change to adults. In such cases, the itching becomes severe and bothersome constantly.
Itching and discomfort in the anus leads to disturbed sleep. The person becomes irritable, nervous, absent-minded. Weakness and fatigue are observed. During scratching, the larvae fall under the nails, and their further spread throughout the body or bedding, household items. From above, the larvae are covered with a sticky substance, so they easily attach to any surface.
There may be pain in the central abdomen, nausea, changes in stool in the form of diarrhea or constipation. Less common is loss of appetite and weight loss. Rash, dermatitis, cough often appear.
In women, the inhabited parasite can crawl into the internal genital organs, causing diseases of the bladder and reproductive organs.
If you do not start treatment on time, then the acute stage of the disease flows into a chronic form, and the consequences can be much more dangerous - intestinal inflammation, peritonitis, appendicitis.
Features of the structure and life of parasites
Pinworms are small and gray-white in color. The female can reach a length of 12 mm, while the male is only 5 mm. Females have pointed ends, and in males one of the body parts is slightly twisted in the form of a spiral. They are attached to the intestinal mucosa with the help of suction cups, which are located on the abdominal cavity.
The entire life cycle of development takes place in the human body. Once in the oral cavity, the larvae move towards the small intestine. The habitat of pinworms in the adult stage of development is the duodenum - it enters it a month after penetration into the human body.
After fertilization, the male dies and goes outside with feces. A pregnant female loses the ability to attach to the walls of the mucous membrane and moves to the end of the intestine due to its active peristalsis in order to lay eggs. She does this mainly at night, when the muscles of the intestinal walls and anus are most relaxed. Lays up to 18,000 eggs at a time. Along with the eggs, a sticky substance is secreted, which causes itching.
The larvae inside the eggs become dangerous to others and the person himself after 5 hours. If they enter the environment, then under favorable factors, they can exist for up to 3 weeks. They die in hot, dry conditions, and remain alive under the influence of chlorine-containing disinfectants. Most of the laid eggs die at temperatures below -8 degrees. An adult cannot develop outside the human body and dies.
Where else do pinworms live? They can continue their vital activity not only in various parts of the intestine, but also in other internal organs.
One such popular habitat for parasites is the woman's vagina. The pinworm can move to the uterus or remain in the fallopian tubes, causing serious illness.
Symptoms of getting worms into the vagina:
- itching, discomfort, redness of the genitals;
- pain, pain during urination;
- copious white discharge;
- diarrhea, nausea;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- decreased appetite.
Another common habitat is the nose. An infected person, by scratching the nasal passages, can leave the larvae of these parasites on the mucous membrane. After maturation, the adult begins to move along the respiratory tract to the lungs.
Thus, pinworms can live in human lungs. Diseases such as rhinitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, and bronchial asthma develop.
Routine stool analysis is ineffective as the larvae are found in the outer folds around the anus rather than inside the intestines. An effective method is scraping from skin areas. Adults, fragments and eggs can be found.
To collect the biomaterial, a cotton swab is used, which is moistened in a glycerin solution, or an adhesive tape. The patient should report to the clinic early in the morning. You do not need to wash yourself and perform an act of defecation.
To obtain a reliable result, you need to take a scraping several times with an interval of 1-2 days. Only 5-6 times can you get a reliable negative or positive answer. An analysis is being prepared for a day.
Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity can detect pathological processes in the digestive organs. The liver and pancreas are enlarged, accumulation of bile in the ducts can be detected.
Preventive and therapeutic measures
Treatment of enterobiasis is not difficult. Medicines can be selected on the basis of chemical, herbal components. The use of homeopathy is acceptable.
The most common drugs are Pirantel, Dekaris, Piperazine, Nemozole, Mebendazole, Albendazole.
All antihelminthic drugs are highly toxic, so you need to strictly observe the dosage and take into account contraindications. Pirantel and Piperazine can be used in the treatment of helminthic infestation in children under one year old, pregnant and lactating mothers.
Traditional medicine offers recipes based on garlic, pumpkin seeds, tansy, wormwood. You can drink decoctions and infusions, do enemas.
To speed up the healing process and eliminate the repeated risk of infection, the patient should strengthen the immune system. At first, there is a need to take multivitamin complexes, immunomodulators, biological products (Linex, Bifiform, Hilak Forte).
Before starting treatment, you need to switch to a diet and adhere to it for a long time during the recovery period. You should not eat spicy, fatty, salty and sweet foods. All dishes should be boiled and baked. Worms are afraid of sour and bitter taste, so sour varieties of fruits, berries and vegetables are preferred. You can drink fermented milk drinks. Cook porridge only in water. Alcohol and nicotine are strictly prohibited.
- During the treatment period, it is necessary to wash and change linen in the morning and evening. The washed laundry must be ironed on both sides.
- The nails should be trimmed short.
- Bed linen is changed once a day.
- Ventilate the room and do wet cleaning.
- Thoroughly wash food products, process meat and fish well.
- Keep your hands clean and remember to wash them before eating.
If you pay attention to the problem in time, undergo an examination and start treatment, then recovery comes quickly, without the development of complications.