Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Methods Of Infection, Treatment

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Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Methods Of Infection, Treatment
Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Methods Of Infection, Treatment

Video: Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Methods Of Infection, Treatment

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Video: fetal infections- toxoplasmosis in pregnancy 2023, February
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During the period of fetal development, the female body needs constant medical supervision. During this period of time, the expectant mother is most at risk of disease. During pregnancy, a common disease is often manifested - toxoplasmosis. This disease is almost asymptomatic, while leading to adverse consequences in the development of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of the disease is required.

Content

  • 1 What is toxoplasmosis (who is the causative agent of the disease)
  • 2 How does infection occur
  • 3 Signs of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
  • 4 What is dangerous

    • 4.1 If pregnancy is just planned
    • 4.2 During pregnancy
    • 4.3 Risk to the fetus
  • 5 Diagnostics
  • 6 Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
  • 7 Prevention

What is toxoplasmosis (who is the causative agent of the disease)

This disease is usually referred to as TORCH infections. All of them are united by the ability to transmit through the intrauterine pathway. In other words, this pathology can pass vertically from the mother to her child, who is in the womb at the time of infection. This virus is caused by the simplest microorganisms (Toxoplasma). This carrier (parasite) is intracellular, which significantly complicates the identification of its presence in the human body.

This common disease during normal periods of life does not pose a significant threat to health, but during pregnancy it can adversely affect the life of the mother and child

How does infection occur

A high susceptibility has been recorded to this infection. According to statistics, in Russia this disease affects over 20 percent of the population. The greatest likelihood of contracting an infection is present in regions where there are warm climatic conditions.

The following common variants of viral infection transmission are distinguished:

  1. Alimentary (infection occurs during the consumption of raw and poorly refined products).
  2. Contact (transmission of infection occurs through contact with animals, especially with street animals).
  3. Transplacental (transmission of the virus occurs during pregnancy, from the mother to the developing fetus).
  4. With blood transfusion, as well as at the time of organ transplant operations.
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The norm of indicators suggests that during pregnancy, about one percent of women become infected with a viral infection, while 20% of them transmit the disease to a child. As a rule, the transmission of a viral infection to a child is possible only when the fetus is born after the woman's body is damaged by parasitic microorganisms.

Signs of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

Ten percent of people infected with this malicious virus typically show the following symptoms:

  • frequent headaches;
  • a constant feeling of coldness (chills);
  • symptoms of muscle pain and spasms;
  • an impressive increase in lymph nodes;
  • pain in the liver;
  • rash on the skin.
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As a rule, these symptoms are somewhat similar to the usual toxicosis in women, which is why the sick in a timely manner do not attach much importance to such manifestations.

What is dangerous

As a rule, in the human body, this disease proceeds without any symptoms. You can identify this ailment by the presence of a non-standard number of lymphocytes in the blood. Rarely enough, symptoms of malaise appear, as with the flu (weakness, headaches, fever, runny nose and cough). In the presence of a viral infection, infection of the eyes is often manifested, which is expressed in the development of corienitinitis. This infection is especially dangerous for women with HIV. In this case, a large amount of suppuration appears in the brain.

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In addition, the following symptoms appear:

  • inflammation of the lymph nodes;
  • manifestation of myositis;
  • the introduction of cysts into muscle tissue and severe spasms;
  • deterioration of the liver, as well as the gallbladder.

Also, with the progression of the disease, the patient shows deviations from the nervous system. In exceptional cases, a viral infection leads to paralysis. Other, less common symptoms also appear with a viral infection. With low immunity, in rare cases, this viral infection can lead to encephaloemilitis or infectious pneumonitis, which is sometimes fatal.

If pregnancy is just planned

If a woman has just planned a pregnancy, then you should know that during this period of time a viral infection does not pose a significant threat to her. However, in case of infection with the virus less than six months before pregnancy, there is a risk of premature birth or miscarriage. That is why a woman needs to think about her child in advance and, if possible, undergo a medical examination by specialists.

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With proper planning or in the process of conceiving a child, there is practically no chance of transmitting the virus to the fetus.

During pregnancy

If a woman becomes pregnant for the first time and is carrying a fetus, the likelihood of symptoms and transmission of the virus to the fetus is higher.

Consider the percentage of risk of transmission of infection to a child during pregnancy:

  • from the first to the eighth week, the risk of transmission is only 17 percent, but there is a high probability of the death of the child in the womb;
  • infection from 8 to 18 weeks increases the risk of transmission of the disease up to 25%, and in addition, there is the likelihood of severe damage to the fetus;
  • from 18 to 24 weeks, the probability of transmission increases to 65%, while the child may show serious violations in the work of internal organs;
  • from 24 to 40 weeks of pregnancy, the probability of transmission of the virus increases to 80%, while the disease in the child is asymptomatic, but after a few years deviations may appear.
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After six months of pregnancy, the risk of transmission of the virus from mother to child is significantly reduced, however, such a disease can lead to premature birth and prematurity of the baby. To exclude the likelihood of the manifestation of the disease and its transition to the fetus, doctors conduct an examination in a timely manner during pregnancy, regularly monitoring the mother's health.

Danger to the fetus

For a child who develops in the mother's womb, this viral infection carries a significant risk. Consider the likely manifestations regarding the periods of maturation of the baby:

  • from 0 to 8 weeks, the disease leads to the development of serious defects, up to the death of the baby in the womb;
  • from 8 to 18 weeks - the disease leads to serious brain damage, damage to the eyes and liver;
  • from 18 to 24 weeks - pathology leads to a deterioration in the work of internal organs and the development of chronic diseases;
  • from 24 to 40 weeks - the disease leads to consequences in the form of blindness, deafness or mental abnormalities after birth;
  • after 40 weeks - damage to the body by the virus can lead to premature birth and prematurity.
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This viral disease has a significant effect on the child's body, which is why the mother needs to start treatment in a timely manner so that the baby is born healthy and strong. In order to timely identify a pathological deviation, the mother needs to properly approach the diagnosis before pregnancy, as well as in the process of carrying a child.

Diagnostics

To detect and eliminate the disease in a timely manner, there are special methods. Consider the main options for examining the fetus and mother during pregnancy:

  • the implementation of a serological examination, which is performed with the detection of globulins;
  • ultrasound diagnostics, allowing timely detection of abnormalities in the development of the fetus;
  • puncture, as well as subsequent examination of the fluid for the presence of a viral infection.
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These studies can detect toxoplasmosis and, if present, quickly begin treatment. To avoid the development of the disease, the specialist must promptly prescribe a therapeutic course.

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

It is recommended to treat this disease under the supervision of a gynecologist, as well as an infectious disease specialist. Consider the main options for therapy:

  • etitropic therapy aimed at expelling viruses from the body using appropriate equipment;
  • in the chronic form of the disease, treatment is performed before or after pregnancy under the strict supervision of a physician;
  • the therapeutic course lasts for one week and is accompanied by the intake of antiprotozoal drugs.
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Treatment of women during pregnancy is carried out under the strict supervision of a physician. With an appropriate therapeutic course, the risk of fetal infection with a viral infection is halved.

Prevention

In order not to get infected with this dangerous disease, it is recommended to observe some precautions. Consider the main preventive recommendations:

  1. It is required to consume meat that has undergone proper heat treatment (you cannot eat raw and semi-raw meat).
  2. It is required to rinse vegetables and fruits with hot water, as well as disinfect all cutlery.
  3. It is required to regularly change the pet's toilet so that the cysts do not have time to develop.
  4. When working with plants, it is required to observe precautions, wear protective equipment.
  5. It is recommended to constantly observe hygiene measures, not only before meals, but also throughout the day.

The correct attitude towards your health allows you to avoid the likelihood of serious diseases, which subsequently lead to complications, and in the case of the female body, they can be transmitted to the developing fetus

Toxoplasmosis is a dangerous viral disease that has a negative effect on the body. It also affects women during pregnancy. To prevent this ailment from causing significant harm, it is required to conduct regular examinations, as well as observe preventive measures. This will avoid damage to the body, as well as the subsequent spread of the virus to the child during pregnancy.

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