Chronic Toxoplasmosis In Humans: Symptoms And Treatment

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Chronic Toxoplasmosis In Humans: Symptoms And Treatment
Chronic Toxoplasmosis In Humans: Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Chronic Toxoplasmosis In Humans: Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, February
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Despite the large number of diseases of a parasitic nature, toxoplasmosis is quite common. It can occur in both acute and chronic forms - the latter is most common. Chronic toxoplasmosis can involve the nervous system, heart muscle, eyes and other vital internal organs of a person into the pathological process. It is especially dangerous for women during the period of bearing a child, because fetal infection can occur. If untreated, it can lead to the formation of various diseases and even problems with the child's intelligence.

Content

  • 1 Mechanism of infection
  • 2 Types of disease
  • 3 The clinical picture of the disease
  • 4 Diagnostic methods
  • 5 Drug treatment of the chronic form of the disease
  • 6 Dangers and consequences of the disease
  • 7 Preventive measures

Infection mechanism

Usually, toxoplasmosis does not pose a danger to the human body. A person can have this disease for many years and do not even know about the presence of intruders in his body, since they may not show themselves for a long period of time.

As for the penetration of parasites into the body, it can occur in the following ways.

  1. Transplacental pathway, from the infected mother to the fetus. Of particular danger is infection with toxoplasmosis in the first trimester of pregnancy, because in such a situation there is a high risk that the baby will receive congenital toxoplasmosis.
  2. Orally. Infection by this route occurs as a result of contact with sick pets (cats and dogs) or as a result of the consumption of dishes prepared from meat that have undergone insufficient heat treatment.
  3. In case of blood transfusion. This transmission mechanism is considered rare, but there are such cases.

Regardless of the way helminths enter the human body, they are localized in the intestines. In the absence of adequate treatment, parasites multiply, their eggs enter the lymph drainage, bloodstream and lymph nodes. Therefore, an increase in the size of the lymph nodes may confirm the presence of the disease. Together with the blood flow, helminths move throughout the body, getting into any tissues and organs.

Types of disease

Depending on the symptoms of the clinical picture, the disease is classified into such forms as:

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  • chronic;
  • cerebral;
  • ocular;
  • sharp;
  • congenital.

The clinical picture of the disease

As a result of the penetration of the pathogen into the human body, the incubation period will last for 14 days. To diagnose the presence of an infection in the body, it is necessary to pass tests. If a person's defenses are weakened, chronic toxoplasmosis develops.

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In this situation, the pathological manifestations of the disease will be characterized by a high level of intensity, resembling meningitis or encephalitis. Therefore, an important nuance is the examination of the patient and the correct diagnosis. Usually, in the phase of exacerbation of the disease, symptoms appear such as:

  • an increase in body temperature to high numbers;
  • lack of effect from taking antipyretic drugs;
  • feeling of general weakness;
  • the appearance of a rash on the skin of the body;
  • decreased muscle tone;
  • deterioration of vision;
  • an increase in the size of the lymph nodes;
  • development of pneumonia;
  • deterioration in memorization;
  • sleep disorders;
  • lack of appetite;
  • intoxication of the body;
  • irritability;
  • the appearance of thickening in muscle fibers;
  • disorders of the functioning of the organs of the endocrine system;
  • VSD;
  • fatigue;
  • headache.

Additional manifestations of the disease can be:

  • pain in muscles and joints;
  • myocarditis;
  • inflammation of the meninges.

Despite the listed pathological symptoms, it is difficult to diagnose chronic acquired toxoplasmosis, because they are almost identical with the manifestations of such diseases as:

  • chlamydia;
  • herpes;
  • hepatitis.

There are cases when the manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis can lead to suspicions of the presence of cancer in the body.

Diagnostic methods

The correct diagnosis can be made after collecting anamnesis and complaints of the patient, general examination of the patient and data from laboratory diagnostic methods. Particular attention is paid to whether there was contact with pets (cats), what dietary habits a person has, as well as his professional direction.

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As for the methods of laboratory diagnostics, they are divided into two groups.

Parasitological. These methods are based on identifying the causative agent of the disease, for which biological samples are used. This group of methods includes:

  • microscopic examination of swabs from tonsils and lymph nodes;
  • histological examination of biopsy material taken from organs damaged by the disease.

Immunological. These methods are used for diagnostics, and most often they include:

  • serological reactions;
  • conducting intradermal tests.

These analyzes are highly accurate.

Drug treatment of the chronic form of the disease

In the case of a chronic disease, treatment is directed to the use of immunomodulatory agents. Unlike acute therapy, the use of antibacterial drugs and chemotherapy will be ineffective.

In the case of weak clinical manifestations of the chronic form of toxoplasmosis, the following drugs are prescribed:

  • Pyrimethamine;
  • Sulfadiazine;
  • Folic acid.

The patient needs to tune in to the fact that the treatment will be a long period of time (a year or even longer).

Complex treatment has proven itself well. This is confirmed by the observations of doctors, which indicate that only one course of treatment leads to a sustainable recovery of almost 90% of sick persons. Therefore, for such therapy it is recommended to use:

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  • means of etiotropic action;
  • antiallergic drugs;
  • fortifying drugs;
  • vitamins;
  • vaccination;
  • stimulants of leukopoiesis.

The choice of drugs should be carried out only by a qualified specialist based on the analysis of examination results and laboratory diagnostic methods.

The symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis are similar to the symptoms of diseases of a different etiology, so you cannot start treatment yourself. The selection of adequate therapy should be carried out only by a qualified specialist after conducting research and making a final diagnosis. Otherwise, complications may arise that pose a considerable danger to the health and life of a sick person.

Dangers and consequences of the disease

Manifestations of toxoplasmosis are rare, because usually it proceeds without the presence of any pathological manifestations. Its vivid symptoms are observed in persons with a low level of body resistance - it is they who are affected by diseases such as myocarditis and encephalitis.

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There is a misconception that in the absence of clinical manifestations of the chronic form of toxoplasmosis, treatment is not necessary.

Preventive actions

There is a belief among doctors and the general population that treating a disease is much more difficult than preventing it. It also applies to the case in question, therefore, to prevent infection with toxoplasmosis, it is recommended:

  • eat meat and fish dishes that have undergone sufficient heat treatment;
  • when preparing minced meat dishes, do not try it;
  • it is imperative to wash your hands after contact with pets.

We hope that in this article you have found the answers to all your questions.

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