Table of contents:
- Description of the disease
- The manifestation of the disease
- Laboratory diagnostics
- Healing activities
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by the simplest microorganisms (toxoplasma). Often people are not even aware of the presence of the disease. It is necessary to treat it when symptoms appear, especially if toxoplasmosis is found in children and women during pregnancy.
- 1 Description of the disease
- 2 Manifestation of the disease
- 3 Laboratory diagnostics
- 4 Treatment measures
Description of the disease
The cat becomes the final host of the simplest single-celled parasite of Toxoplasma. She can become infected by eating raw, contaminated meat from birds and animals.
Reproduction of Toxoplasma occurs in various parts of the intestine of the cat, and then, together with the feces, the larvae go outside. In the cycle of development of the parasite, a person becomes an intermediate host.
Once in the human body, Toxoplasma penetrates into the small intestine. Then, with the blood flow, it enters the lymph nodes, where further reproduction takes place. From here, the parasites, along with the blood, spread to all internal organs.
The parasite Toxoplasma Gondia can enter the human body in several ways.
- Insufficient adherence or complete absence of hygiene rules in contact with feces of pets (cleaning the pet's tray, getting particles of feces on household items).
- Eating poorly thermally processed meat of an infected animal (in most cases pork and lamb), as well as animal products - eggs, milk.
- During a blood transfusion, the infection can come from a sick person.
- Internal organ transplant from an infected person.
- Intrauterine, from sick mother to fetus.
Toxoplasmosis is transmitted by breastfeeding only if there are bleeding cracks and wounds on the nipples, as well as during the course of the disease in the acute stage.
The manifestation of the disease
When Toxoplasma enters the human body, immune cells are able to cope with parasites on their own. The situation is more complicated with children who become infected in the womb, and with patients with reduced immunity. Toxoplasma is more severe in people with cancer, AIDS and other diseases that affect the immune system.
There are several main and most common forms of toxoplasmosis. They differ in the signs of the course of the disease and the location of the lesion.
The symptoms of acute toxoplasmosis are as follows:
- body temperature reaches 39 degrees;
- enlarged lymph nodes, especially in the armpit;
- weakness, fatigue, apathy;
- pain in muscles and joints;
- the organs of the abdominal cavity (liver, spleen) are enlarged, therefore pains of varying intensity are felt.
Toxoplasmosis of the brain leads to inflammation, the following symptoms appear:
- headache, dizziness;
- the sensitivity of individual parts of the body (most often the limbs) is lost;
- feeling of creeping creeps on the body;
- paralysis of the limbs;
- a serious condition is a person falling into a coma.
If the penetration of parasites into a woman's body occurred before the conception of a child, there is no threat to him. When the primary infection occurs during pregnancy, the condition is dangerous for the fetus, especially if it happened during the laying of internal organs - in the first trimester. There is a risk that the fetus will freeze, miscarriage often occurs. The child may die shortly after birth.
Congenital toxoplasmosis in a child is recognized by the following manifestations:
- retinal inflammation, which leads to complete blindness of the baby;
- impaired functioning of the hearing organs, which can lead to deafness;
- an increase in the size of the digestive organs (the liver and spleen are especially affected);
- the newborn's head may be abnormally large or small;
- there is a delay in physical and mental development.
With the localization of parasites in the organs of vision, ocular toxoplasmosis develops, which is characterized by the following symptoms:
- pain, pain in the eyes;
- visual impairment: double vision, fog, flashes;
- complete blindness.
Chronic toxoplasmosis is characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission. An exacerbation of the chronic stage of the disease is indicated by a slight increase in body temperature, pain in muscles and joints, problems with stools in the form of constipation or diarrhea, and an irregular heart rhythm. They are worried about inflammatory diseases of the organs of vision, as well as problems associated with the endocrine system.
The main method for determining parasites is the serological method of blood testing. Antibodies of a certain group are indicative.
- If a group of IgM antibodies was found, then this means that the infection occurred quite recently, the disease proceeds in an acute stage.
- If the body has independently coped with the infection or the chronic stage of the disease is progressing, IgG antibodies are detected.
- The avidity (the ability of human antibodies to bind to foreign microorganisms) of antibodies indicates the duration of infection.
If the test is taken by a pregnant woman, IgM or IgG antibodies are found, then an IgG avidity test must be taken. With rates above 40%, the threat to the fetus is minimal. If the avidity is low, then the test is repeated after 3-4 weeks.
Sometimes additional studies are carried out such as EEG, ultrasound, X-ray, tomography. In pregnant women, a biopsy of various tissues affected by Toxoplasma can be taken, an analysis of the amniotic fluid is carried out.
If you suspect the presence of this disease, you should contact an infectious disease specialist and parasitologist.
During treatment, the following medications for toxoplasmosis are used.
- Pyrimethamine is an antiprotozoal agent. Do not treat children under 2 months of age, and cannot be taken by pregnant women in the first trimester. The drug is taken in cycles with an interval of 5-7 days. The initial dosage for an adult is 50 mg per day and then is reduced.
- Sulfadiazine is a pill form of antimicrobial agent. The initial dosage is approximately 3 g per day, then gradually decreases. Cannot be administered to pregnant women and children under 3 months.
- Clindamycin belongs to the group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Not assigned to pregnant women and children under 3 years of age. Intramuscularly appoint 300 mg twice a day. If the medicine is prescribed in the form of tablets, then one capsule is given 4 times a day.
- Prednisolone. It is a hormonal drug that is most often used during the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Not recommended for use during pregnancy, as well as when treating children under 12 years of age. The drug in the form of tablets is prescribed at 20-30 mg per day.
- Spiramycin. It is an antibacterial drug that comes in the form of tablets and solution for intravenous administration. The drug is approved for use in toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Adults are prescribed 2-3 tablets per day.
- Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Available in capsules and ampoules. Not indicated for pregnant women and children under 8 years of age. On the first day of treatment, 200 mg of the active ingredient is usually given.
- Metronidazole is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Assign 250 mg twice a day. The course of treatment is a week.
Almost all of the above drugs lead to a deficiency of folic acid in the body. The brain begins to suffer, therefore, preparations containing this microelement are prescribed in parallel.
Additional groups of drugs that are prescribed for toxoplasmosis include the following.
- At the same time, immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed - Likopid, Taktivin, Cycloferon, Timogen.
- Antihistamines - Suprastin, Diazolin, Tavegil.
- Systemic enzyme therapy drugs are prescribed - Wobenzym, Phlogenzym.
- Probiotics and prebiotics that restore damaged intestinal microflora.
Traditional medicine can be used to treat toxoplasmosis.
- Collecting herbs will help remove protozoa. Take eucalyptus, calendula flowers, aspen bark, elecampane root and calamus root. All components are ground into powder and mixed together. Pour boiling water over a few grams of the mixture and infuse for an hour. Strain before use. You can drink 40 ml three times a day.
- Based on the collection of herbs, you can prepare a tincture. In this case, vodka must be used together with water. Insist for three days. You should drink 5 ml of tincture diluted in water in the morning and in the evening.
- Bird cherry broth will come in handy. The branches of the bird cherry are poured with cold water and boiled for 30 minutes. You need to take 50 ml for a month before meals.
- Garlic helps get rid of parasites. Chop a few cloves of garlic and pour over milk, cook on fire for 15-20 minutes. Drink in small sips throughout the day for 10 days.
- Grind a handful of pumpkin seeds with a blender and take it every morning before meals with warm milk.
- A mixture of medicinal herbs, which includes tansy, chamomile, gentian root, wormwood and buckthorn bark, will help to quickly cope with the disease. To prepare the infusion, they are crushed, and then 40 g of dry raw materials are poured with boiling water. You need to drink in the morning before meals.