Dicroceliosis In Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Table of contents:

Dicroceliosis In Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention
Dicroceliosis In Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Video: Dicroceliosis In Humans: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Kill Parasites : Human Intestinal Worms : Parasite Cleanse - VitaLife Show Episode 177 2023, February
Anonim

With dicroceliosis in humans, the liver and bile ducts, the gallbladder are affected. The cause of a rare disease of helminths is flatworms, which are part of the trematode group. In the human body, two types of liver flukes parasitize: Dicrocoelium hospes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, this is a lanceolate fluke. In parasites of this species, the development cycle is multi-stage. One of them occurs when it enters the human body.

Content

  • 1 Description of dicroceliosis

    • 1.1 Pathogen
    • 1.2 Localization
    • 1.3 Ways of infection
  • 2 Symptoms of invasion
  • 3 Diagnostic methods
  • 4 Features of the course of the disease
  • 5 Treatment options
  • 6 Diet in case of illness
  • 7 Possible complications
  • 8 Forecast
  • 9 Prevention

Description of dicroceliosis

Dicroceliosis is a parasitic disease characterized by inflammatory processes in the bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver. They are caused by parasitic worms that have reached the sexually mature stage. Herbivores usually suffer from dicroceliosis; in humans, this disease is extremely rare.

However, cases of this disease have been reported in various parts of the world. In 2006 alone, doctors recorded dicroceliosis:

  • 10 cases in France;
  • 15 - in Voronezh;
  • 31 - in Tashkent.

Causative agent

An adult parasite from the trematode class has dimensions from 0.2 to 0.3 mm in width and up to 10 mm in length. The oval-shaped body is slightly narrowed in the anterior region, there are special suction cups around the mouth. With their help, the worm attaches to the host's tissues. There is also an additional suction cup - abdominal, it has a large size.

The size of eggs (diameter) of fluke is ½ mm, their shape is asymmetrical. There is a lid on the surface through which the larvae emerge. The color of the eggs is brown or yellow. Thanks to their thick shell, the eggs are resistant to environmental influences, the temperature range at which they do not die is from -23 ° C to + 20 ° C.

Image
Image

The lanceolate fluke was first described in 1819. A detailed study of the parasite was carried out by Wendel Krul in the middle of the 20th century. He described in detail all the developmental cycles of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Regions of habitat of a flatworm:

  • Europe;
  • Asia;
  • Africa;
  • Australia;
  • North America.

The life cycles of the parasite take place first in the snail's body, then in the ant's body. It is the infected ants that are swallowed by mammals. Lanceolate fluke causes dicroceliosis when an invaded insect (ant) enters the human body. This happens extremely rarely, when eating poorly washed greens, fruits, vegetables. In the medical literature, only a few cases of human dicroceliosis are described.

Image
Image

Localization

Once in the human body, the larva matures for 1.5-2 months. It occurs in the gallbladder or bile ducts. An adult dicrocelium lays eggs intensively.

Flukes on the tissues of human organs have a toxic and mechanical effect. As a result of their vital activity, the walls of the cells of the bile ducts become thicker, they grow in width. The liver tissue affected by fluke becomes inflamed, leukocytes accumulate in the lesions.

Image
Image

Infection routes

Trematode helminths go through different development cycles, parasitizing in mollusks, ants, in the body of domestic (cows, sheep, goats) and wild animals. They are sources of human infection with dicroceliosis.

The main method of infection with helminths (fluke lanceolate) is food. These can be poorly washed vegetables and herbs. They may contain ants - potential carriers of the larvae of this type of worms.

When eating dishes prepared from the liver of infected animals, it is possible that eggs and helminth larvae may enter the human body. This happens when the offal is poorly fried (cooked) or consumed raw.

Image
Image

Invasion symptoms

Symptoms of dicroceliosis, its intensity depends on the stage, there are two: acute, chronic. The main signs of an acute form of invasion:

  • sharp pains in the stomach and intestines;
  • heat;
  • rash on the skin;
  • intestinal disorders such as diarrhea.

The intensity of the listed symptoms of dicroceliosis is determined by the individual parameters of the human body: the state of the immune system, sensitivity to a foreign agent.

Image
Image

All of the above listed signs of dicroceliosis in humans are also observed in the chronic form of helminthiasis, they are not so pronounced, they are complemented by other unpleasant manifestations of the disease.

With dicroceliosis, a person begins to have problems with appetite, and a persistent rejection of any products may occur. In addition, the liver increases in size, and pain occurs in the right side under the ribs.

Common signs of acute and chronic forms of dicroceliosis are symptoms that indicate problems of the gastrointestinal tract and organs of the hepatobiliary system (liver, gallbladder, bile ducts). These are classic manifestations:

  • a tendency to loose stools;
  • the skin, mucous tissues and sclera of the eyes acquire a yellowish tint;
  • skin rashes of an allergic type are possible.

All of these symptoms are present in some patients, and the disease is extremely difficult, in others they may be absent or only mild.

Image
Image

Diagnostic methods

The presence of the parasite in the human body is detected in two ways. The first diagnostic method is reduced to the study of feces for the presence of kidney fluke eggs in it. The second method is based on the study of the contents taken from the bile ducts.

Laboratory examination of feces does not provide reliable information. Even if dicrocelium is found in feces, one cannot speak of the presence of a disease in a person. Eggs in feces can be present if the reason for their appearance is the consumption of raw or poorly fried (cooked) liver of any mammal animal.

In this case, infection does not occur, as the eggs come out. To exclude a false diagnosis of dicroceliosis, a person must eliminate liver dishes from his diet and, after 7 days, donate feces for tests again.

Image
Image

Examination of the contents of the bile ducts gives a more accurate picture of dicroceliosis. To obtain material for research, the method of duodenal sounding is used. With its help, the presence of helminths in the body is established. Fluke eggs are found in bile or in the duodenum.

The patient needs a complete blood count. An increased level of eosinophils is a sign of helminthic invasion. A large number of leukocytes indicates a bacterial infection.

Liver dysfunction is judged by the results of a biochemical blood test:

  • increased bilirubin;
  • above the norm of ALAT and ASAT;
  • high levels of alkaline phosphatase.

To obtain an accurate picture of dicroceliosis, the patient may be prescribed an ultrasound scan. With its help, the liver and biliary tract are examined. At the end of therapy, the diagnosis of "dicroceliosis" is removed upon receipt of 3 negative tests for the causative agent of the disease.

Image
Image

Features of the course of the disease

The lanceolate fluke lives in the bile ducts and human liver. During the incubation period (it lasts several weeks), symptoms of the disease are not observed. The next stage is acute, it is accompanied by an increase in temperature, diarrhea, pain localized in the gastrointestinal tract.

Fluke in the process of life release toxins. An organism poisoned by them can react with allergic reactions: skin rashes, eosinophilia. The transition of the disease to the chronic stage is not excluded, its features:

  • lack of appetite;
  • pains appear in the right hypochondrium;
  • diarrhea.

A patient with a chronic form of dicroceliosis may have a bacterial infection. It is accompanied by febrile conditions, the human liver enlarges. In the analysis of blood, an increased content of leukocytes, ESR is higher than normal.

Image
Image

Treatment methods

A patient with a diagnosis of dicroceliosis is treated in a hospital setting. Therapy is prescribed by a parasitologist. Self-medication of dicroceliosis is excluded, as it can lead to serious consequences. There are no specific treatments for lanceolate fluke infestation. For the treatment of dicroceliosis, doctors use the methods of struggle worked out on other types of trematodes.

The main role in the treatment of dicroceliosis is played by antiparasitic drugs. Practice has shown that "Triclobendazole", "Chloxil", "Praziquantel" have a strong therapeutic effect.

Name

medicines

Release form Mode of application Time of receipt Norm per 1 kg of weight Course duration Features:
Chloxil Capsules (gelatinous) Dissolve the capsule in ½ cup of milk (warm) In the morning, after breakfast, at least 60 minutes must pass 0.1-0.5 g 2 days The medicine is drunk in several doses, the interval between doses is 10 minutes, after 3 hours it is required to drink a choleretic and antispasmodic medicine
Praziquantel Coated tablets After eating, do not chew, drink with water 3 times a day, interval from 4 to 6 hours 0.75 g At the discretion of the doctor It is not recommended to exceed 6 hours between doses
"Triclobendazole" Pills After meals (preferably greasy), drink water Once or twice with an interval of 12 hours 10 mg to 20 mg One-time appointment -
Image
Image

The most effective remedy for fluke is Praziquantel. The drug is quickly absorbed and shows good results in the fight against parasites.

For the treatment of dicroceliosis, the drug "Emetin" can be used. This is an injection solution made from the root of the ipecacuanha plant. The patient is treated in cycles of 3-day courses. The number of cycles is from 4 to 5, the interval between them is 4 days.

In addition to antiparasitic drugs, a patient with dicroceliosis is prescribed:

  • hepatoprotectors;
  • multivitamin complexes;
  • drugs that improve the functions of the liver, biliary tract.
Image
Image

The need for antibacterial drugs arises in the presence of bacterial inflammation. To relieve pain in dicroceliosis, analgesics, antispasmodics are included in the patient's treatment regimen.

Diet for illness

A patient with a chronic form of dicroceliosis has a decrease in appetite. The patient is prescribed a special diet to help restore liver function. A fluke-infected person's menu should not include:

  • fried foods;
  • salted vegetables, fish, meat;
  • smoked delicacies;
  • coffee;
  • alcohol.
Image
Image

The diet of a patient with dicroceliosis should consist of cereals, vegetables, fruits. Fluke-infected patients are forced to adhere to this dietary structure until complete recovery (1-2 months). Diet speeds up the liver repair process.

In addition to the diet, the doctor prescribes vitamin and mineral complexes for the patient. To cleanse the body of parasites and normalize the digestive tract, a patient with dicroceliosis is not prohibited from unconventional methods of treatment.

Possible complications

The chronic course of dicroceliosis can lead to complications, all of them are associated with the work of the liver and the functions of the bile ducts. A large number of worms, lack of adequate treatment for dicroceliosis can provoke hepatitis, biliary cirrhosis of the liver. Another bad prognosis for dicroceliosis is not excluded - liver failure.

Image
Image

Forecast

Timely started complex treatment of dicroceliosis, prescribed after competent diagnosis, guarantees a favorable prognosis.

Prevention

Compliance with basic hygiene rules can be guaranteed to relieve a person from infection with fluke:

  • washing hands before eating, especially if the meal is organized outdoors;
  • thorough processing of products before eating them (washing, heat treatment).

This is especially true for people who eat the raw livers of infected animals. A dish made from this offal must be thoroughly cooked.

Image
Image

It is very easy to bring fluke eggs into the body during outdoor recreation in the area where snails live - the primary carriers of parasites. A person in nature needs to be wary of ants - the secondary carriers of the infection. Insects can enter the body with food during a picnic.

Popular by topic