What Is Chronic Toxoplasmosis?

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What Is Chronic Toxoplasmosis?
What Is Chronic Toxoplasmosis?

Video: What Is Chronic Toxoplasmosis?

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What is chronic toxoplasmosis?

Chronic toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic (transmitted from animals), protozoal (caused by unicellular microorganisms) disease characterized by damage to the liver, nervous system, kidneys and signs of intoxication. Infection of the population of southern countries reaches 25-90%. This pathology is dangerous for pregnant women and people with immunodeficiency.

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Chronic toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic (transmitted from animals), protozoal (caused by unicellular microorganisms) disease.

What it is

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by protozoa. The causative agent is Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite develops in the body of the feline family. A person becomes infected by the fecal-oral route as a result of ingestion of Toxoplasma cysts with contaminated animal feces with food and water. Infection is possible when eating meat of wild animals. Less commonly, toxoplasmosis develops after the penetration of microbes through the skin.

Infection of children in sandpits is possible. After infection, the parasite invades the lining of the small intestine, migrating to various organs (lymph nodes, eyes, muscles, heart, brain, liver and spleen).

Distinguish between congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis. In the first case, the pathogen crosses the placenta and affects the fetus. This infection mechanism is called vertical. With a normal state of immunity, a chronic form of toxoplasmosis develops in an erased form, or a person becomes an asymptomatic carrier of the infection. With a decrease in human immunity, Toxoplasma is activated, causing the acute stage of the disease.

Symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis in adults

Symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis are:

  • subfebrile body temperature;
  • general malaise;
  • headache;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • muscle pain;
  • weight loss;
  • abdominal pain;
  • dyspnea;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • decreased appetite;
  • bloating;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • decreased potency;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • enlarged liver;
  • soreness of the abdomen in the right hypochondrium;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • decreased performance;
  • depression;
  • decreased vision;
  • flashes before the eyes;
  • redness of the eyes;
  • lacrimation;
  • fear of bright light;
  • chest pain in the area of ​​the heart.
A symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis is weight loss
A symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis is weight loss

A symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis is weight loss.

Headache can be with chronic toxoplasmosis
Headache can be with chronic toxoplasmosis

Headache can be with chronic toxoplasmosis.

Bloating is a symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis
Bloating is a symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis

Bloating is a symptom of chronic toxoplasmosis.

Sleep disturbance occurs in chronic toxoplasmosis
Sleep disturbance occurs in chronic toxoplasmosis

In chronic toxoplasmosis, sleep disturbance is observed.

Abdominal pain is observed in chronic toxoplasmosis
Abdominal pain is observed in chronic toxoplasmosis

Pain in the abdomen is observed with chronic toxoplasmosis.

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Patients often complain of deterioration in mental activity, memory and attention. With a prolonged course of toxoplasmosis, a decrease in intelligence is possible. Toxoplasmosis negatively affects the system of the organ of vision, provoking the development of uveitis (damage to the choroid), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva), retinitis (inflammation of the retina) and iritis (damage to the iris).

The consequences of infection can be: impotence, optic nerve atrophy, blindness, adrenal insufficiency, vegetative-vascular dystonia and neurasthenia.

Signs of illness in children

When pregnant women come into contact with cats, congenital toxoplasmosis may develop.

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When pregnant women come into contact with cats, congenital toxoplasmosis may develop.

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • deformation of the skull;
  • hearing loss;
  • visual disturbances;
  • mental retardation;
  • rash;
  • yellowness of the skin;
  • subfebrile temperature;
  • convulsions.
The rash can be with a chronic form of toxoplasmosis
The rash can be with a chronic form of toxoplasmosis

The rash can be in the chronic form of toxoplasmosis.

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by seizures
The chronic form of the disease is characterized by seizures

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by seizures.

Hearing loss occurs with chronic toxoplasmosis
Hearing loss occurs with chronic toxoplasmosis

Hearing loss is observed in chronic toxoplasmosis.

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If a child has chronic toxoplasmosis, then the following consequences are possible:

  • delayed speech and mental development;
  • oligophrenia;
  • underdevelopment of the brain and skull;
  • epilepsy;
  • hearing loss;
  • blindness;
  • a decrease in the volume of the eyeballs.

Symptoms of the disease in pregnant women

Pregnant women with toxoplasmosis can have abortion (spontaneous abortion) and still have a stillborn baby. This pathology is included in the group of TORCH infections. This means that it can cause birth defects in the fetus.

Diagnostics

In case of complaints, you must contact a specialist.

General clinical blood and urine tests will be required to detect toxoplasmosis
General clinical blood and urine tests will be required to detect toxoplasmosis

To detect toxoplasmosis, general clinical blood and urine tests will be needed.

Computed tomography of the brain is necessary to diagnose toxoplasmosis
Computed tomography of the brain is necessary to diagnose toxoplasmosis

Computed tomography of the brain is necessary to diagnose toxoplasmosis.

X-rays are prescribed to detect toxoplasmosis
X-rays are prescribed to detect toxoplasmosis

X-rays are prescribed to detect toxoplasmosis.

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To detect toxoplasmosis you will need:

  • general clinical tests of blood and urine;
  • analysis for TORCH infections (performed by pregnant women);
  • electrocardiography;
  • computed tomography of the brain;
  • ophthalmoscopy;
  • electroencephalography;
  • radiography;
  • neurological examination;
  • neurosonography;
  • physical examination;
  • interview;
  • visual inspection;
  • allergic tests with toxoplasmin;
  • lumbar puncture.

The most informative analysis is ELISA. This blood test can detect specific antibodies. Instead of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), CSC (complement fixation reaction) can be performed.

Chronic toxoplasmosis treatment

Treatment of toxoplasmosis is mainly medication.

Complex therapy includes:

  • the use of drugs acting on the vegetative forms of the parasite and cysts;
  • increased immunity;
  • desensitization (elimination of an allergic reaction);
  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • the introduction of toxoplasmin.
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Treatment of toxoplasmosis is mainly medication.

After the diagnosis is made, etiotropic drugs are prescribed (Spiramycin-Vero, Fansidar, Delagil, Biseptol, Tetracycline-Lect). Spiramycin-Vero is an antibiotic from the macrolide group. It disrupts Toxoplasma protein synthesis, thereby inhibiting their growth and reproduction. This medication can be used during pregnancy.

Contraindications are: lack of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactation period, childhood and intolerance to the components of the drug. Less commonly, 5-nitroimidazole derivatives (Metrogyl, Tiniba) are used for toxoplasmosis.

If the patient complains of frequent exacerbations of the pathology, then the administration of immunomodulators is indicated. These include: Likopid, Immunomax, Immunal and Cycloferon. More effective treatment of toxoplasmosis will be in the case of the use of blockers of H1-histamine receptors (Tavegil, Loratadin, Lorahexal, Zodak, Zirtek).

Spiramycin-Vero is an antibiotic from the macrolide group
Spiramycin-Vero is an antibiotic from the macrolide group

Spiramycin-Vero is an antibiotic from the macrolide group.

If the patient complains of frequent exacerbations of the pathology, then the administration of immunomodulators is indicated. These include Cycloferon
If the patient complains of frequent exacerbations of the pathology, then the administration of immunomodulators is indicated. These include Cycloferon

If the patient complains of frequent exacerbations of the pathology, then the administration of immunomodulators is indicated. These include Cycloferon.

Less commonly, with toxoplasmosis, 5-nitroimidazole derivatives Metrogyl are used
Less commonly, with toxoplasmosis, 5-nitroimidazole derivatives Metrogyl are used

Less commonly, with toxoplasmosis, 5-nitroimidazole derivatives Metrogyl are used.

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With this pathology, UFO (ultraviolet blood irradiation) is often performed. Start with a small dose, gradually increasing it. For symptoms of the disease, specific immunotherapy is effective. After a preliminary allergic test, the patient is injected with toxoplasmin. Its concentration is gradually increased. This helps eliminate allergies. Additionally, patients need to drink vitamins and enrich the diet with vegetables and fruits. Folk remedies for toxoplasmosis are ineffective.

Prevention

Prevention of toxoplasmosis includes sanitary and hygienic, veterinary and surveillance activities. The main aspect is considered to limit contact with animals that are carriers of the infection.

A measure of prevention of toxoplasmosis is wet cleaning
A measure of prevention of toxoplasmosis is wet cleaning

A measure of prevention of toxoplasmosis is wet cleaning.

To prevent toxoplasmosis, it is necessary to wash fruits before eating them
To prevent toxoplasmosis, it is necessary to wash fruits before eating them

To prevent toxoplasmosis, it is necessary to wash the fruit before eating it.

Regular hand washing in contact with cats to prevent toxoplasmosis
Regular hand washing in contact with cats to prevent toxoplasmosis

Regular hand washing when in contact with cats to prevent toxoplasmosis.

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Toxoplasmosis prevention measures are:

  • regular hand washing when in contact with cats;
  • organization of a separate place for pets;
  • thorough heat treatment of meat and minced meat;
  • washing fruits, vegetables, berries and herbs before eating them;
  • examination of cats for toxoplasmosis;
  • prevention of contamination of water bodies, sandpits, beaches and land with cat feces;
  • carrying out wet cleaning.

For people at risk, antibacterial prophylaxis can be carried out. Vaccination against toxoplasmosis has not been developed.

Consequences of chronic toxoplasmosis

Complications of the disease are:

  1. Decreased visual acuity.
  2. Progressive myopia.
  3. Impaired brain activity.
  4. Arrhythmia.
  5. Heart failure.
  6. Anemia.
  7. Dysbacteriosis.
  8. Complications during pregnancy.
  9. The development of a congenital form of infection.
Decreased visual acuity is observed with toxoplasmosis
Decreased visual acuity is observed with toxoplasmosis

A decrease in visual acuity is observed with toxoplasmosis.

Complications of the disease are anemia
Complications of the disease are anemia

Complications of the disease are anemia.

Heart failure - a consequence of chronic toxoplasmosis
Heart failure - a consequence of chronic toxoplasmosis

Heart failure is a consequence of chronic toxoplasmosis.

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In severe cases, in the absence of therapy, a lethal outcome is possible.

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