Trematodes In The Human Body - Types, Symptoms And Treatment

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Trematodes In The Human Body - Types, Symptoms And Treatment
Trematodes In The Human Body - Types, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Trematodes In The Human Body - Types, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Helminths: Cestodes and Trematodes (transmission, clinical importance, and treatment) 2023, February
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Trematodes in the human body - types, symptoms and treatment

Trematodes are worms belonging to the digenetic flukes, the presence of these parasitic helminths in the human body indicates a serious disease affecting the digestive system. The danger of this pathology lies in the fact that it leads to intoxication and damage to all organs.

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Trematodes are worms that are referred to as digenetic flukes.

What are flukes?

The fluke class is a type of flatworm. They are distinguished into a separate group of worms, along with cystodes and nematodes. There are about 6 thousand varieties of these parasites in the world.

This flatworm has 2 suction cups located in the mouth and on the peritoneum. Helminths develop in the bodies of intermediate and final hosts. The place of localization of worms is the digestive tract. The sizes of flukes can range from a few millimeters to several meters. The form is leafy. There are also round specimens of worms.

Of all the varieties of flukes, the most dangerous are:

  • hepatic;
  • living in the rectum;
  • blood;
  • pulmonary.
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The form of trematodes is leafy.

The parasite organism consists of the digestive, nervous, excretory, reproductive systems. Almost everyone is hermaphrodite.

What is the danger of trematodes?

Parasites, getting into the human body, are capable of infecting almost all organs of life. Worms damage blood vessels, causing profuse bleeding and severe intoxication. Poisonous substances formed as a result of the activity of parasites are difficult to remove from the body.

Violation of the normal functioning of organs has a severe course. The disease caused by parasitism of trematodes is difficult to cure in advanced stages. Patients should be reminded that the lack of timely medical attention when infected with these parasites can be fatal. Children and people with weakened immunity are at risk.

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Children and people with weakened immunity are at risk.

Life cycle of a parasite

Life cycle sequence of trematodes:

  1. Egg. The presence of worm eggs can only be detected in the host's body. They enter the environment with animal feces, urine, sputum. At this stage, the development of miradiation occurs. It soon either hatches or expects to be swallowed by an intermediate host.
  2. At the stage of development of the intermediate host of trematodes, a mollusk appears. It either evacuates from the egg or develops further in it.
  3. Stage of formation of redium from sporocyst. At this time, there is a further increase in size of the larva, it becomes more and more like an adult.
  4. At the cercaria stage, individuals most closely resemble adults in structure. These individuals of trematodes have a tail, suckers, organs of digestion, excretion, reproduction. Cercaria can swim freely. Its vital activity continues until it dies or meets a second intermediate or final host (this depends on the type of parasite). Man is this host, and further reproduction of flukes occurs in his body.
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Life cycle sequence of trematodes.

Fluke classification

The most common in the human body are hepatic, pulmonary and blood flukes. Blood cells are also called schistosomes. These worms parasitize the bloodstream of the final host.

There are other species that are not schistosomes. A person can become infected with them while eating poor-quality food, if parasites are present in it. These representatives of trematodes cause pathological conditions of varying severity in humans. There are the following types of flukes:

  • feline (Siberian) fluke;
  • hepatic fluke (fasciola);
  • lanceolate fluke;
  • pulmonary fluke;
  • schistosomes;
  • blood fluke;
  • clonorchis (Chinese fluke).
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There is such a variety of flukes as the Cat Fluke.

Symptoms of the disease in humans

Symptomatic manifestations are due to the localization of the parasites. Trematodosis has the following characteristic symptoms:

  • the appearance of itchy rashes on the skin (they often look like allergies);
  • constant thirst;
  • the occurrence of an unpleasant sensation during urination;
  • cloudy urine;
  • prolonged nausea, combined with vomiting;
  • diarrhea or constipation (sometimes these types of bowel disorders alternate for a long time);
  • flatulence;
  • detection in feces of trematodes in the form of small worms;
  • decreased appetite (while the person feels constant hunger);
  • the skin becomes pale and dry (sometimes you can notice their yellowing);
  • decreased red blood cell counts;
  • frequent migraines;
  • constant fatigue that does not go away even after a night's sleep;
  • depressive state;
  • drowsiness alternating with insomnia.
Trematodosis has the following symptom - migraine
Trematodosis has the following symptom - migraine

Trematodosis has the following symptom - migraine.

Trematodosis has a symptom such as constant thirst
Trematodosis has a symptom such as constant thirst

Trematodosis has such a symptom as constant thirst.

Loss of appetite is a symptom of trematodosis
Loss of appetite is a symptom of trematodosis

Loss of appetite is a symptom of trematodosis.

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In the advanced stage of trematodosis, these symptoms intensify. To these are added signs of general poisoning. A person suffers from this severe allergic reactions.

Diagnostic methods

First of all, the specialist is engaged in the collection and analysis of anamnesis (medical history). General and biochemical blood tests must be done to determine the degree of damage to the body by trematode eggs. Possible intoxication with worms is indicated by a strong increase in liver enzymes and other changes.

To determine a more complete clinical picture, a urinalysis is done. It is an informative diagnostic method for determining schistosomiasis. Stool analysis makes it possible to detect trematode eggs. Duodenal intubation shows the degree of damage to the organs of the digestive tract. In parallel, the intestinal cavity is examined. The examination requires preliminary preparation of the patient.

If, against the background of infection with parasites, a cough appears, then the patient is assigned an X-ray examination. It allows you to detect eggs of flukes in sputum. Other instrumental diagnostic methods:

  • ultrasound examination of the abdominal (abdominal) cavity;
  • tests for a serological reaction;
  • ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
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An ultrasound scan is performed to identify trematodes.

It is necessary to differentiate this type of parasite from other worms: nematodes, cestodes.

Trematodosis treatment

Treatment of helminthic invasions caused by trematode eggs depends on the degree of damage to the body, the location of the parasites, and the duration of the pathology. Medication is mandatory. It can be combined with traditional methods of therapy. Together, they provide the most effective results.

Medication

Prescription of drugs is carried out depending on the type of parasite:

  1. If a hepatic fluke is found, then it is recommended to treat it with Chloxil. It is best to start taking this drug in the early stages of the disease. In this case, the person does not develop complications. In advanced cases, the presence of trematodes can provoke hepatitis and even cirrhosis of the liver.
  2. The Chinese fluke is destroyed with the help of Fautin, Chloxil, Rezokhin. It is imperative to treat the bile ducts with choleretic and hepatoprotectors. This type of parasite is capable of causing severe disruption of the digestive tract, so therapy can last for a long time. The parasite of the genus trematodes is capable of infecting the pulmonary tract.
  3. With a giant fluke, Chloxil and additional immunostimulating drugs are used. This type of parasite adversely affects the liver, therefore, patients should use Hexachloroethane, Emetin. Antibiotics are given to prevent relapses. The use of immunomodulatory drugs, fortifying agents, vitamin complexes is shown.
  4. If any type of trematode is detected at the initial stage, antimony preparations can be prescribed to the patient. This remedy (provided it is taken correctly) has a positive effect and quickly relieves a person of parasites.
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The Chinese fluke is destroyed with the help of Rezokhin.

In many cases, patients are prescribed Biltricide. This anthelmintic drug has a wide range of effects, including on trematodes.

Folk remedies

Various decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs are an effective adjuvant for the treatment of helminthiasis, but only in combination with drug therapy. The following drug recipes make it possible to get rid of the parasite quickly and without side effects:

  1. Since olden times, powder from wormwood inflorescences has been used to treat trematodes. The crushed product must be taken in 1 tsp. three times a day. It should be washed down with 1 glass of boiled water at room temperature. This procedure is recommended before meals. Take a mild laxative in the evening. The duration of such treatment for trematodes is 3 days.
  2. To prepare a decoction of tansy, take 20 g of crushed dry inflorescences and pour them with 1 glass of boiled water. After they are removed, infuse until completely cooled. You need to drink 3 times a day before meals for 1/3 of a glass. The duration of treatment is 1 day. In no case should you practice this method of getting rid of trematodes with high blood pressure and during pregnancy.
  3. Treatment with lightly toasted dry coriander seeds gives good results. They must be crushed into powder and taken before meals 3 times a day. On the first day, you need to take 0.5 g of the drug for 1 dose. The next day, it increases to 1 g. For 3-8 days, 1.5 g of powder should be taken in 1 dose. The duration of treatment for trematodes is 8 days.
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Treatment with lightly toasted dry coriander seeds gives good results.

All of these drugs will only have an effect if taken along with the medication prescribed by your doctor.

Prevention

To avoid illness, only purified water should be consumed. For this it is best to use a special filter. You can not swim in ponds and lakes, where animal excrement can get infected with trematode eggs.

You cannot buy meat from spontaneous markets. All meat products must be heat treated. Before eating fruits and vegetables, they should be well doused with boiling water. Food should be bought only in trusted stores. You should carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene, preventing the penetration of flukes into the body.

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