Wide Tapeworm: Life Cycle, What Is Dangerous, Ways Of Infection, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

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Wide Tapeworm: Life Cycle, What Is Dangerous, Ways Of Infection, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention
Wide Tapeworm: Life Cycle, What Is Dangerous, Ways Of Infection, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Video: Wide Tapeworm: Life Cycle, What Is Dangerous, Ways Of Infection, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Гельминты #1. Цепни. / Helminths #1. Tapeworms. 2023, February
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Broad tapeworm - symptoms and treatment

Content

  • Life cycle of a parasite
  • What is dangerous for humans
  • Infection routes
  • Diphyllobotrisis symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • How to get rid of
  • Prevention

The broad tapeworm is a representative of the group of tapeworms (cestodes), parasitizing in the body of animals and humans. These helminths reach a length of 15 m. The parasite has a head, bothria (slits) and a body divided into segments (proglottids). These parasites cause a disease in humans called diphyllobothriasis. Pathology leads to the development of anemia and other complications.

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The broad tapeworm is a representative of the tapeworm group.

Life cycle of a parasite

The life cycle of this parasite occurs with a change of hosts, in connection with which the broad tapeworm is referred to as biohelminths. The role of the final host is played by a person or an animal (fox, cat, dog) feeding on the intermediate host of the worm. The first intermediate host of the broad tapeworm is the freshwater crustaceans of Daphnia, and the second is the fish that live in fresh water bodies (carp, salmon, burbot, pike, perch).

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The life cycle of this parasite occurs with a change of hosts, in connection with which the broad tapeworm is referred to as biohelminths.

The cycle of development of the parasite begins with the fact that the final host, together with feces, releases helminth eggs or whole segments into the environment. Adults can release up to 1 million eggs per day, which ensures a high population of tapeworms. The eggs fall into the soil, and from there - into fresh water bodies. There they can remain viable for up to a month.

After about 3 weeks, coracidia (larvae) develop. They are spherical, ciliated and equipped with hooks.

Further development of the broad tapeworm occurs in the body of copepods, which are swallowed by helminth larvae.

In the body of crustaceans, coracidia lose their cilia and turn into procercoids up to 0.7 mm in size. Crustaceans serve as food for freshwater fish. In the body of the latter, procercoids (larvae of the tapeworm) enter the muscles and internal organs. They can be seen with the naked eye upon close examination. In the second host, the plerocercoid develops (the larval form of the parasite, infectious to humans). Sometimes, at first, the larvae enter the body of small fish, and then predators (pike, burbot) eat it. In this case, the cycle becomes more complicated.

The second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm is the pike
The second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm is the pike

The pike is the second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm.

Perch can be the second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm
Perch can be the second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm

Perch can be the second intermediate host of the broad tapeworm.

Carp can also be the second intermediate carrier
Carp can also be the second intermediate carrier

Carp can also be the second intermediate carrier.

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What is dangerous for humans

The broad tapeworm negatively affects a person due to the release of waste products, mechanical damage to the intestines, impaired absorption of nutrients and vitamins, as well as the development of allergic reactions.

The consequences of diphyllobothriasis can be:

  1. Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue).
  2. Astheno-neurotic syndrome.
  3. B12 deficiency anemia.
  4. Enlargement of the liver and spleen. Observed in severe disease.
  5. Disruption of gastric acid secretion.
  6. Mechanical intestinal obstruction. It occurs as a result of blockage of the lumen of the small intestine of a person by helminths.
  7. Paresthesias (sensory disorders).
  8. Depression.
  9. Anaphylactic reactions.
  10. Hypovitaminosis.
The consequences of diphyllobothriasis can be an enlarged liver
The consequences of diphyllobothriasis can be an enlarged liver

The consequences of diphyllobothriasis can be an enlarged liver.

The consequences of the disease can be hypovitaminosis
The consequences of the disease can be hypovitaminosis

The consequences of the disease can be hypovitaminosis.

Astheno-neurotic syndrome can manifest itself after illness
Astheno-neurotic syndrome can manifest itself after illness

Astheno-neurotic syndrome can manifest itself after an illness.

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Infection routes

Infection of adults and children occurs in an alimentary way when eating fish infected with tapeworm larvae that has not undergone proper heat treatment. Parasite transmission factors can be:

  • caviar;
  • milk;
  • lightly salted fish;
  • kebabs;
  • stroganin.
Kebabs are a transmission factor
Kebabs are a transmission factor

Kebabs are a transmission factor.

Lightly salted fish can be a transmission factor
Lightly salted fish can be a transmission factor

Lightly salted fish can be a transmission factor.

Caviar can be a transmission factor for the parasite
Caviar can be a transmission factor for the parasite

Caviar can be a transmission factor for the parasite.

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Sometimes infection occurs when cutting pike, burbot or salmon, through hands and dishes. The plerocercoids (larvae) of the tapeworm die after freezing in a few days and when the fish is heated to + 50… + 55ºC. Lightly salted foods pose a danger to humans, since helminths die only at a salt concentration of 8-9%.

Diphyllobotrisis symptoms

If there is a tape parasite in the body, symptoms may be absent. In this case, we are talking about the latent course of the disease. Diphyllobothriasis is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • bright red spots on the tongue;
  • violation of sensitivity in the form of tingling and burning in the mouth;
  • rashes on the body;
  • decreased appetite;
  • alternating normal bowel movements with diarrhea;
  • constipation (if the intestines are blocked);
  • flatulence;
  • nausea;
  • weight loss;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • weakness;
  • dizziness;
  • the presence of cracks in the tongue;
  • abdominal pain;
  • irritability.
Nausea as a sign of illness
Nausea as a sign of illness

Nausea as a sign of illness.

With diphyllobothriasis, rashes may appear
With diphyllobothriasis, rashes may appear

With diphyllobothriasis, rashes may appear.

Weight loss occurs with illness
Weight loss occurs with illness

Weight loss occurs with illness.

Dizziness is a sign of diphyllobothriasis
Dizziness is a sign of diphyllobothriasis

Dizziness is a sign of diphyllobothriasis.

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Diagnostics

To clarify the diagnosis, you will need:

  1. Patient interview. Epidemiological history is of great importance (stay in areas endemic for diphyllobothriasis, regular consumption of fish).
  2. General blood analysis. Reveals a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes, a decrease in neutrophils, an increase in leukocytes, an acceleration of ESR, as well as an increased content of eosinophils.
  3. Stool analysis. In the presence of a worm parasitizing in the intestine, its eggs and sometimes the body of the helminth in the form of segments are found in the feces.
  4. Colonoscopy (endoscopic examination of the colon).
  5. FEGDS.
  6. Physical examination.
  7. Blood chemistry.
  8. Ultrasound.
Blood test reveals a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells
Blood test reveals a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells

A blood test reveals a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and red blood cells.

The analysis of feces is done in the presence of a worm parasitizing in the intestines, its eggs and sometimes the body of the helminth in the form of segments are found in the feces
The analysis of feces is done in the presence of a worm parasitizing in the intestines, its eggs and sometimes the body of the helminth in the form of segments are found in the feces

The analysis of feces is done in the presence of a worm parasitizing in the intestine, its eggs and sometimes the body of the helminth in the form of segments are found in the feces.

In case of illness, the patient is interviewed
In case of illness, the patient is interviewed

In case of illness, the patient is interviewed.

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Differential diagnosis is carried out with bacterial pathologies, peptic ulcer disease, colitis and other helminthiases (teniasis, teniarinhoses, ascariasis, trichocephalosis).

How to get rid of

The doctor determines the treatment regimen. If a parasite is found, deworming is carried out. The following medications may be prescribed:

  1. Antihelminthic drugs in the form of tablets (Biltricid). Lead to the death of the parasite due to impaired glucose uptake, decreased glycogen levels and increased production of lactic acid. They cause paralysis of the body of the broad tapeworm, facilitating its excretion with feces.
  2. Antihistamines (in case of allergic reactions).
  3. Sorbents (Polysorb, Polyphepan).
  4. Iron preparations (Ferroplex, Ferrum Lek).
  5. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin Vial). It is administered by injection when taken in pill form.
  6. Folic acid.
Cyanocobalamin Vial is taken in pill form
Cyanocobalamin Vial is taken in pill form

Cyanocobalamin Vial is taken in pill form.

Ferrum Lek iron-based preparation
Ferrum Lek iron-based preparation

Ferrum Lek is an iron-based preparation.

Causes paralysis of the body of a broad tapeworm, facilitating its excretion with feces Polysorb
Causes paralysis of the body of a broad tapeworm, facilitating its excretion with feces Polysorb

Causes paralysis of the body of a broad tapeworm, facilitating its excretion with feces Polysorb.

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You can treat patients with folk remedies. These include: male fern extract, pumpkin seeds (raw with honey or boiled). After treatment, the feces are re-analyzed for the presence of broad tapeworm eggs. The prognosis is favorable with timely and correct treatment.

Prevention

Broad tapeworm: symptoms and treatment at home, life cycle Broad tapeworm - symptoms and methods of infection

To reduce the risk of infection with a broad tapeworm, you must:

  • boil and fry fish thoroughly;
  • exclude from the menu sliced ​​bread, lightly salted caviar and barbecue;
  • be examined regularly (when living in endemic regions);
  • educate the population;
  • protect freshwater bodies from faecal contamination;
  • properly equip cesspools;
  • carry out sanitary control over the discharge of wastewater;
  • to clean the banks of reservoirs, rivers and ponds;
  • refuse to eat half-baked fish during its preparation;
  • properly handle cutting boards and knives.

There is no specific prevention of diphyllobothriasis.

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