Preparations For Bovine Tapeworm

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Preparations For Bovine Tapeworm
Preparations For Bovine Tapeworm
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Bovine tapeworm preparations

When the word "tapeworm" is used, many people think of a funny card game and do not know that this is the name of a parasite worm. Once in the human body, he settles in it for years. After all, the symptoms of the disease, which allow starting treatment in the early stages, are not always noticeable. What are the signs to find out that the worm is parasitic in the body and how to get rid of the bovine tapeworm?

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Once in the human body, the bovine tapeworm settles in it for years. Therefore, you need to know the signs of its development and methods of treatment.

What is bovine tapeworm?

The tapeworm (Taeniarhynchus saginatus - lat.) Is also called bovine tapeworm because its intermediate owner is a cow. Another name is unarmed tapeworm. Bovine tapeworm settles in the small intestine and lives there for up to 25 years.

The body of the worm is flat, ribbon-like, and reaches 7–10 meters in length and more. It is formed by:

  • scolex (head) - a rounded-square part of the body up to 2 mm in diameter, on which there are four suckers without hooks, a rudimentary proboscis;
  • a short neck that produces proglottids measuring 16–20 mm by 5–7 mm;
  • strobilus, consists of 1000–2000 proglottids (segments).

Proglottids form next to the head of the bovine tapeworm and increase with distance. The oldest (extreme) segments are separated from the body one by one or in groups. Therefore, some scientists believe that the worm is not a single organism, but a colony. The proglottid has female and male reproductive organs, due to which they produce eggs at a rate of up to 100,000 pieces per day. The eggs come out when the segment dries up and bursts.

Overcoming the resistance of the human sphincter, proglottids enter the perianal folds, and from there they enter the external environment. Some of them are excreted passively, with feces, while others are actively crawling out.

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The intermediate hosts of the parasite are ruminants, in which the larvae parasitize in muscle tissue.

Two hosts take part in the development of the bovine tapeworm, the final, in whose body it turns into a mature individual, is only a person. Intermediate hosts are ruminants, in which the larvae (cysticercus and Finns) parasitize in the muscle tissue, and in the reindeer - in the brain tissues.

Danger to humans

Bovine tapeworm is harmful to health. Some of the nutrients that come from food are consumed by the parasite. Because of this, a person develops deficiency states, disrupts the work of various systems, in particular, the digestive, immune.

The accumulation of parasites in the human body causes intestinal obstruction, inflammation of the walls of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. The secretory and motor activity of the digestive tract also deteriorates.

The inhabitants of Africa are most susceptible to such helminthic invasion - countries south of the Sahara, Asia (especially Mongolia). Less often others get sick in Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Poland.

A person who is infected with bovine tapeworm has a disruption of the digestive system
A person who is infected with bovine tapeworm has a disruption of the digestive system

In a person who is infected with a bovine tapeworm, the digestive system is disrupted.

The accumulation of parasites in the human body causes intestinal obstruction
The accumulation of parasites in the human body causes intestinal obstruction

The accumulation of parasites in the human body causes intestinal obstruction.

Inhabitants of Africa are most susceptible to helminthic invasion
Inhabitants of Africa are most susceptible to helminthic invasion

The inhabitants of Africa are most susceptible to helminthic invasion.

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On the territory of the former USSR, the disease almost never occurs. So far, an unfavorable situation persists in the Transcaucasia, Central Asia, and regions of developed animal husbandry in Russia. Milkmaids, shepherds, livestock breeders, butchers, etc. are more susceptible to infection.

The reasons

The beginning of the life cycle of parasites is counted from the moment when the eggs of the worms enter the feces of a sick person. In the environment, they live up to several months until they enter the body of an animal with vegetation. In the small intestine of the intermediate host, the larvae, or oncospheres, go out, penetrate through the walls of the organ into the bloodstream, and then into muscle tissue, becoming vesicular worms.

Human infection occurs when the meat of such an animal is consumed, which is not properly processed. Once inside, the larva is activated. Two months are enough for an adult worm to grow from the oncosphere in the human body.

Symptoms

Distinguish between early and late stages of teniarinchosis. The latter is also called chronic.

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A person with a chronic stage of teniarhynchosis develops a severe headache.

At an early stage, symptoms in a person are either absent or mild. The following syndromes are characteristic of the chronic stage:

  • asthenic-vegetative - irritability, fatigue, sleep disturbances, headache and dizziness, general weakness;
  • dyspeptic - increased salivation, heartburn, nausea, sometimes vomiting, stool disorders (constipation or diarrhea);
  • abdominal - abdominal pain with different localization;
  • change in appetite - a sharp decrease and increase in appetite.

Often, the only manifestation of parasite invasion is the presence of segments in the feces.

In order to establish the fact of infection with bovine tapeworm and prescribe adequate treatment, during a medical examination, the patient is asked whether he has eaten raw or poorly cooked meat, whether he has observed the release of segments - during defecation or outside of it. Laboratory tests of feces and perianal scrapings are carried out, as well as blood tests for eosinophilia, leukopenia, anemia.

List of bovine tapeworm medications

Treatment for parasites is carried out on an outpatient basis and consists mainly of the appointment of antiparasitic drugs.

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Treatment for parasites consists mainly in the appointment of antiparasitic drugs.

Fenasal

The active ingredient is niclosamide.

Fenasal is used for children and adults. Treatment has almost no contraindications with the exception of hypersensitivity, and is also characterized by a limited list of side effects - allergic reactions, exacerbation of skin dermatitis. During pregnancy and lactation, the drug can be used in extreme cases, only after consultation with your doctor.

Before starting the course, the patient is prescribed sodium bicarbonate (2 g). The drug requires a diet. The diet consists of liquid, low-fat dishes - jelly, fruit juices, liquid cereals.

The recommended daily dosage is to remove the parasite:

  • for adults and children over 12 years old - 2–3 g, which corresponds to 8–12 tablets;
  • for children: up to 2 years old - 500 mg, from 2 to 5 years old - 1 g, from 5 to 12 years old - 1.5 g.

The tool is used in one step, taken on an empty stomach. Two hours later, they drink a glass of sweet tea, eat crackers or cookies. There is no need for a laxative.

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The drug Fenasal is used to treat children and adults.

Akrikhin

The active ingredient is mepacrine. The drug is presented as tablets without a coating (0.1 g) or in a coating (0.05 g).

Treatment with Akrikhin is carried out carefully, since the list of contraindications for him is greater than that of the previous remedy for parasites:

  • individual hypersensitivity;
  • mental illness, including schizophrenia, psychosis;
  • chronic kidney disease;
  • violation of the access of bile to the intestine (cholestatic jaundice).

Akrikhin is incompatible with primaquine and quinocide. Before removing the parasite, they switch to a special diet: they wipe the dishes, limit the portion of fat, spicy and salty. The patient is given a laxative before bedtime. Do a cleansing enema in the morning.

The medicine in the indicated dose is taken on an empty stomach (1-2 pcs. In 5-10 minutes), washed down with plenty of water with sodium bicarbonate. A laxative is taken 30-60 minutes after taking the last tablet. There should be a chair for the next three hours. If this does not happen, they give an enema. When parasites leave without a head, the intestinal lavage is repeated 1–2 times.

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Akrikhin is contraindicated in pregnant women, as it can cause dangerous phenomena in the fetus.

The highest therapeutic dose for adults: single dose - 300 mg, daily - 600 mg. Mepacrine is contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women, as it can cause dangerous phenomena in the body of the fetus or newborn.

Albendazole

The active ingredient, albendazole (400 mg), causes the death of parasites.

The tool is prohibited for hypersensitivity, under the age of 2 years. The treatment is carried out carefully if it is necessary to remove the worm in patients with pathology of the retina with cysticercosis, cirrhosis of the liver, as well as in case of dysfunction of bone marrow hematopoiesis.

Albendazole causes changes in the blood count, reactions from the nervous system, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, hair loss, skin manifestations and other adverse reactions.

The tablets are taken after meals, washed down with water. Laxatives are not required.

Albendazole is strictly contraindicated in pregnant women and women during lactation.

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Treatment with Albendazole is done very carefully as it can cause abdominal pain, lower blood pressure, and hair loss.

Folk recipe with nuts

Home treatment is carried out according to this recipe.

Unripe walnuts (4 tablespoons) are crushed and poured with a glass of boiling water, to which a pinch of salt is added, and left for 30 minutes. Filter the nut infusion. The broth is drunk during the day, washed down with a saline laxative.

This traditional medicine recipe also helps to get rid of tapeworms, but you should consult your doctor before using it.

Prevention

To avoid tapeworm infection, be aware of safety measures.

  • Individuals at risk are periodically screened for tapeworm infection.
  • Equip toilets in household plots and farms in accordance with sanitary requirements.
  • Keep animal feed clean.
  • Conduct an examination of meat. Before use, visually examine the piece: the larvae are not always visible during a cursory examination, but if you carefully examine the muscle tissue, they are still noticeable.
  • Avoid eating raw meat. Parasite larvae die if the temperature in a piece of meat rises to 80 ° C or more, as well as during prolonged freezing.

Prophylaxis with the use of medicines without preliminary examination will not give a result. Anthelminthic drugs often work against a narrow group of helminths, and it is almost impossible to guess which worm needs to be removed. Therefore, it makes no sense to create unnecessary stress on the body.

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